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Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man. 

The Origin and Evolution of Primitive Man. 


5, r 

"• ..»• 


FREEMASO n.^Y_,.^ 



M.D., M.R.C.P., F.G.S., P.M., P.Z. 




First published in rgit; 

{All rights reserved) 








As many Brothers have requested me to publish in 
an enlarged and more permanent form my Lectures 
on the ancient sources of Masonry (some of which 
have appeared in The Freemason), I have felt it 
my duty as well as a pleasure to comply with their 
request, in order that it may enable every Brother 
who is interested in the past origin of the Craft 
to gain at least a superficial knowledge of its 
antiquity, which will be outside the present dogmas 
of the Order. 

Some readers of The Freemason have taken 
objection to my statements, and I take this oppor- 
tunity, for the sake of Brothers throughout the 
world, of replying to those of my critics. As regards 
my chronology, it is something new to me to find 
a Brother state that the Pliocene Age cannot date 
as long ago as 600,000 years — all the best authori- 
ties that I know would place it much earlier. That 
1 am not wrong in dating back the world's history 
to such great antiquity in my books is proved by 
the discovery of skeletjns of the present type of 
man, fourd in the Pliocene strata in Lombardy. 


It is important to remember that the skeletons 
found in this strata were of the modern type of 
man ; proofs that they were Stellar Cult people 
were found buried with them ; and that they lived 
and died at this period, and were not accidental 
burials, we have Professor Sergi's authority — a 
most unimpeachable one. The Pliocene strata 
were formed from 600,000 to 800,000 years ago.' 
Is any further proof necessary? In the Natural 
History Museum at South Kensington there is an 
exhibit of peculiar interest, the reconstructed skull 
of a primitive man, or woman, found by Mr. C. 
Dawson in a pit at Piltdown Common, Sussex, in 
the autumn of 191 2, on which Professor Wood- 
ward gave a most interesting lecture at the Royal 
Societies Club. In the discussion which followed 
I then pointed out that the reconstruction of the 
mandible must be quite wrong, for to pu: on to a 
skull with a cubic capacity of 1200 cubic centi- 
metres the jaw of a chimpanzee, is alone sufficient 
proof that the reconstruction made is incorrect. 
The Pygmy has a cubic capacity of 900 cubic 
centimetres, average, and I have found one with 
only 850 cubic centimetres. The highest anthro- 
poid ape is 600 cubic centimetres. This skull, 
in my opinion, was a Nilotic Negro of the first 
exodus without Hero-Cult, types of which still 
exist in Australia and inner Africa. 

' "Genesis of Rocks," by Brenton Symois. 


The Stellar Cult existed for at least 300,000 
years, and the people of this cult travelled all over 
Europe, Africa, most parts of Asia, America- 
North and South (except the extreme North and 
South), but did not go to Austraha, New Zealand, 
New Guinea, and some other parts. The Lunar 
Cult followed this, and after that the Solar, which 
existed in some parts of Europe (although not 
in the extreme north), in Asia and Japan, but it 
did not reach the north of Japan. In America 
the Solar people reached Yucatan and travelled 
south as far as Peru ; they did not go to North 
America, the Pacific Islands, and only to the line 
of least resistance in South America, down the 
west side along the Andes. They were stopped at 
Bolivia by the fierce old Stellar Cult people from 
going farther south, as they were from going north 
of Yucatan by the North Mexican tribes. 

The art of recording ideas by signs and symbols 
came before the use of articulate speech. A sign 
does not demand a word, and may not imply the 
existence of a word. A sign or symbol was used to 
represent the thing first — an animal, or bird, or some 
object for which man had no articulate sound as 
yet. The articulate sound followed. Primitive man 
drew a snake to represent a snake — he afterwards 
called it " fu fu " because the snake made this 
sound. He drew a goose to represent this bird 
before he could give it a name — from the saa or 


hiss of the goose he obtained the sound. Hundreds 
of other examples could be given in support of 
this, which Professor Maspero acknowledges is 

Then as regards the age of the signs and 
symbols, one friend asks " for one that is more 
than a few thousand years old— as all that I have 
shown belong to comparatively recent times ! " 
Well, it is difficult in fraternal words to answer 
this question ; some are over 300,000 years, and 
the earliest over a million years old. 

Perhaps I might suggest to my critics that they 
should study geology and anthropology before 
rushing into print on these subjects ; likewise I 
would point out that in studying Stellar Chronology 
the alphabet must be learnt before one tries to 
read. The alphabet as regards their time is this : 
there are seven Pole stars, each one represented 
symbolically as an eye at the time of its being the 
centre ; each takes a definite time in revolution 
before this is attained ; and each of these revolu- 
tions or times of revolution was divided up again 
by the old mystery teachers of Egypt. They did 
not worship the sun or the stars. Brothers who 
express opinions without the knowledge of the 
" writings on the walls " must not expect me to 
take any notice of dogmas which have been proved 
incorrect. I do not mind their believing them : 
that has nothing to do with me. I am writing for 


the truth, and an exoteric rendering of the V.S.L. 
must not take the place of the esoteric represen- 
tation of the Ritual of Ancient Egypt. 

The meaning of my quoting the V.S.L. is not 
as a proof of history, but as a proof that even 
those who believe in the traditions, have traditional 
evidence that it was not, and is not, correct. As 
an authority, " sacred historical documents "—i.e. 
the V.S.L.— are, I contend, not historical at all- 
only traditions. Let us see what reliance can be 
placed on these traditions against documents still 
in existence ; one point only must suffice, because 
otherwise I should have to write a whole volume. 

Clement of Alexandria fixes the date of the 
Exodus, among other enumerations, by this state- 
ment : " That it occurred 345 years before the 
' Sothic Cycle.' " Now the Sothic Cycle was in 
existence before the time of Mena, over 
4000 B.C., as borne out by " Manetho and the 
Monuments," and was a cycle of 1,460 years with 
four years as intercalary. 

The Hyksos period of " Shepherd Kings," or 
their reign at Memphis and Lower Egypt, was 
2554 B.C., and when they left Egypt they built 
Jerusalem. They left in the reign of Tuthmoses— 
and Moses lived after this, and was driven out of 
Egypt with his followers. Traditions versus 
History. It would be unnecessary to add more, I 
think, to prove my contention correct. Resseignier 


lived much too late to be any authority, and 
all he wrote was from traditions he had received 

Josephus is supposed to be the most authentic 
writer on the Jewish antiquities, but he wrote his 
work in the beginning of Trajan's reign, and there 
is a great discrepancy in the traditions and varia- 
tions in the Hebrew and Greek texts which no 
power can reconcile, and this 2,000 years after 
Moses lived. 

These traditions were derived from Rabbinical 
comments, and none of the chronology by the 
most able writers will agree. He leaves out the 
time of the leadership of Tola and Abdon alto- 
gether, and never mentions them. 

As stated in my writings, I have not, and do 
not profess to have, brought forward half the proof 
in existence of my contentions ; I have simply 
driven a small pathway through a dark and 
hitherto impenetrable forest, with the hope and 
firm belief that some future Brother will widen 
this into a great road, so that there may be true 
light where there is now darkness ; and although 
I have cut a small path through and shown the 
way, it may be a hundred years before all 
Brothers motor through. That this will be I have 
not the slightest doubt. 

A. C. 




Freemasonry— The Bridge of History— Uniting 

THE Past with the Present . . i 

i. Different Opinions as Regards the Origin of 
Freemasonry and a Modern Introduction 
in Various Countries . • i 

ii. The Source of Signs and Symbols . 38 

The Soul of Masonry . . . 7^ 

Out of the Silence . . . -78 

The Divine Name ..... 100 


The Second Century of Modern Masonry I 106 


Some Subjects Suggested for Study . .110 

A Lecture before the Essex Masters' Lodge 




Origins of Freemasonry .127 

A Lecture before the Dorset Masters' Lodge 

Freemasonry, Past and Future . 147 

A Lecture before the Mid-Kent Masters' Lodge 


The Origin and Explanation of some Masonic 

Signs and Symbols .... 168 

A Lecture before tiic Heudrc Lodge, Cardiff 


Egyptology and Masonry .... ^307 

A Lecture before the Humber Masters' Lodge 

The Four Cardinal Points . . . 231 

Operative Masonry ..... 255 

Final Chapter ..... 319 



DES BACABS) . . . 





master's apron and COLLAR (EGYPTIAN) 








GASTA ..... 











SENTATION ...... 237 




VARY CODEX) .... Facing 243 



operatives' TEMPLE ..... 305 

And numerous Figures and Diagrams in the Text. 

The Arcana of Freemasonry 



I.— Different Opinions as Regards the 
Origin of Freemasonry and a Modern 
Introduction in Various Countries. 

" Egypt ! how I have dwelt with you in dreams 
So long, so intimately, that it seems 
As if you had borne me : Though I could not know 
It was so many thousand years ago ! 
And in my gropings darkly underground, 
The long-lost memory at last is found 
Of Motherhood — you the Mother of us all ! 
And to my fellow-men I must recall 
The memory too : that common Motherhood 
May help to make the common brotherhood." 

Gerald Massey. 

The origin of Freemasonry is one of the most 
interesting subjects to which the Masonic student 
can apply his time and talent. 

2 1 


There are authors who attribute the origin of 
modern Freemasonry to the followers of Pytha- 
goras, because some of the speculations of that 
philosopher concerning the meaning of numbers 
are to be found in the esoteric doctrines taught in 
Masonic Lodges. Others, on account of the 
Christian symbols that have been incorporated in 
the decorating of things pertaining to Masonry, 
follow the Swedish system, and say that the 
Essenes and the first Christians founded it. Others, 
again, make it originate in the building of 
Solomon's Temple ; many Jewish names, emblems, 
and legends, taken from the V.S.L., having found 
their way into the rites of Initiation and in several 
degrees. And still others state that it goes back 
to Adam ; ask why — they do not know. Thomas 
Payne and those of his school say that the Druids 
were the fathers of the Craft, they being supposed 
•worshippers of the sun, moon, and stars, these 
jewels of the firmament being represented on the 
ceilings of the Masonic Temples. 

Dance of Villoison speaks of Herculanasum as 
its birthplace, because of the many similarities 
that existed between the Collegia of the Romans 
and the Lodges of the operative Masons of the 
Middle Ages. 

Michael Andrew Ramsey, a Scotch gentleman, 
in a discourse delivered in Paris, in 1740, sug- 
gested the possibility of the fraternity having its 


origin in the time of the Crusades among the 
Knights Templar, and explains it in this way : 
The Pope, Clement V, and Philippe le Bel, King 
of France, fearing the power of the Templars 
and coveting their immense wealth, resoh^ed to 
destroy the Order. When, in 1308, Jacques de 
Molay, then Grand Master of the Order, was 
preparing an expedition to avenge the wrongs 
and disasters suffered by the Christians in the 
East, the Pope, the only Sovereign Power to 
which, in the spiritual, the Templars owed 
allegiance, enticed him to France. On his arrival 
he was received with every mark of friendship ; 
but soon after the King caused him to be arrested, 
together with some other dignitaries, accusing 
them of the most heinous crimes, imputing to 
them the secret rites of their initiation. By order 
of the Archbishop of Sens and his provincial 
council, Jacques de Molay, Guy of Auvergne, and 
several other officers were burned alive on i8th 
March, 13 14. The Pope, by a Bull, dated the 
2nd of April, and published on the 2nd of May, 
1 3 1 2, that he issued on his own responsibility 
— the Council of Vienne, in Dauphine, being 
adverse to hasty measures — declared the Order 
abolished throughout the world. The execution 
of the Grand Master and his companions gave 
the " coup de grace " to the Order, but some of 
the Knights who had escaped to Portugal con- 


tinued the Order. They assumed the title of 
Knights of Christ, which the order still bears. 
Jacques de Molay, before his death, had appointed 
Johan Marcus Larmenio as his successor to the 
office of Grand Master. The Knights who, fleeing 
from the persecution, had taken refuge in Scot- 
land at the Court of King Robert Bruce, refused 
to recognize his authority ; and pretending to re- 
establish the Order of the Temple, under the 
allegory and title of Architects, protected by the 
King, laid the foundation of the Order of Free and 
Accepted Masons of the Scottish Rite, in 13 14. 
The new society soon forgot the meaning of the 
execratory oath that the members were obliged to 
take at their initiation ; the death of Clement V, of 
Philippe le Bel, of the accusers and enemies of 
Jacques de Molay, and the other Knights who had 
been executed, having removed the object of their 
vengeance. Still they continued to decorate their 
Lodges with tokens commemorative of the death 
of the Grand Master, and to impose on all new 
members the obligation of avenging it, which they 
signified by striking with an unsheathed dagger 
at unseen beings, his supposed murderers. This 
allegory is well known to the Knights of Kadosh. 
A century had scarcely elapsed when this idea was 
abandoned — the founders and their disciples having 
passed away, their successors saw only allegories in 
the Symbols of the Order — and the extensive use 


of words and texts taken from the Bible was intro- 
duced. The enemies of Cromwell and of the 
Republic, having in view the re-establishment of 
the monarchy, created the Degree of Grand Master 
to prepare the minds of the masses for that event. 
King William III was initiated. 

Masonry, says Preston, was very much neglected 
as early as the reign of James II, and even after 
this period it made but slow progress until 1 7 1 4, 
when King George I ascended the throne. Three 
years later, in February, 1 7 1 7, the first Grand 
Lodge was established in London. A committee 
from the four Lodges then existing in that city 
met at the tavern of the " Apple Tree," and 
nominated Anthony Sayer, who was elected Grand 
Master on the 24th of the following June, the day 
of St. John the Baptist, and for that reason St, 
John was selected as the patron of the Order. 

This origin of the Craft is credited by many 
authorities on the subject. They found their 
opinion on the fact that many of the ceremonies 
practised by the "Architects" are still observed 
among Masons, and that the Grand Lodge pre- 
served the fundamental laws, together with the 
spirit of the ancient Brotherhood. Others, who 
claim to be well informed, are of opinion that it 
did not originate in any Order of Chivalry, but 
the building fraternities of the Middle Ages. 

From 1738, however, Lodges sprang up over 


Europe at a rapid rate, notwithstanding the bitter 
opposition of the Church of Rome, which ful- 
minated against it in most terrible anathemas, as 
early as 1738, at the instigation of the Inquisition. 
Pope Clement XII, on the 28th of April of that 
year, caused a prohibitory Bull to be issued 
against Freemasons, entitled " In Eminenti," in 
which he excommunicated all Masons ; and the 
Cardinal Vicar of Rome, by edict, in the name of 
the High Priest of the God of Peace and Mercy, 
decreed the penalty of death against them in 
1739; and in May, 175 1, Pope Benoit XIV 
renewed the Bull of Clement XII by another, 
beginning with these words : " Providas Roman- 
orum Pontificum." 

Lodges were established in France in 1725, and 
on the 14th September, 1732, all Masonic Asso- 
ciations were prohibited by the Chamber of Police 
of the Chatelet of Paris. 

In 1727 Lord Coleraine founded a Lodge in 
Gibraltar, and in the succeeding year in Madrid, 
the capital of Spain, the stronghold of the 

In 1740, in consequence of the Bull of Clement 
XII, King Philip V of Spain promulgated an 
order against Masons in his kingdom, many of 
whom were arrested and sent to the galleys. The 
Inquisitors took advantage of the opportunity to 
persecute the members of the Lodge they dis- 


covered in Madrid. They caused them to be loaded 
with chains, to be obliged to row in the galleys, 
with a scanty supply of food of the poorest 
quality, but plenty of bastinado. King Fernando 
VI renewed the ordinance on 2nd July, 17 5^, 
making Masonry high treason. 

In 1735 ^ Lodge was established at Lisbon, 
the capital of Portugal, by some of the descen- 
dants of the Knights Templar who fled there, 
under the title of "Knights of Christ." These 
have kept alive the ancient Order in defiance of 
the Pope's Bulls. 

In .1730 a great many Germans were initiated 
in England. In 1733 the Grand Master, Lord 
Strathmore, authorized eleven of the Brotherhood 
to open the Hamburg Lodge. In 1740 B. Putt- 
man, of the Hamburg Lodge, received a Patent 
of Provincial Grand Master from England, and 
the Lodge assumed the title of Absalom. King 
Frederick II, who had been initiated when Crown 
Prince of Prussia, continued to give support, and 
assumed the title of " Grand Master Universal, 
and Conservator of the Most Ancient and Most 
Respectable Association of Ancient Freemasons or 
Architects of Scotland." He cemented together 
again the Order which had become scattered, so 
far as he was able, and signed the Constitution in 
his Palace, at Berlin, ist May, 1786, saving Free- 
masonry from annihilation in Germany. 


In 1732 we find the first Lodge in America; 
it was held in the " Tun Tavern " in Philadelphia, 
the brethren having previously met in Boston, which 
may be regarded as the birthplace of American 
Freemasonry. Henry Price was the first Provincial 
Grand Master appointed by the Grand Lodge of 
England on 30th April, 1733. 

It was established in Italy in the same year. 

In 1735 ^he Grand Duke Francis of Lorraine 
was initiated. He protected the Masons, and the 
Craft flourished in Italy until 1737, when Juan 
Gascon of Medicis, Grand Duke of Tuscany, issued 
a decree of prohibition against it. Soon after his 
death, which occurred the same year, the Lodges 
which had been closed were reopened. It was 
not long, however, before they were denounced 
to Pope Clement XII, who issued his Bull of 
28th April, 1738, and sent an inquisitor to 
Florence, who caused various members of the 
Society to be cast into dungeons. They were set 
at liberty as soon as Francis of Lorraine became 
Grand Duke of Tuscany. He not only protected 
the Masons, but founded lodges in Florence and 
other places on his estates. 

G. Findel was a great advocate that Free- 
masonry was not derived from the mysteries of 
the ancients ; he says : " Seeing that the ancient 
symbolical marks and ceremonies in the Lodges 
bear very striking resemblance to those of the 


mysteries of the ancients, some have allowed them- 
selves to be deceived, and led others astray, 
imagining they can trace back the history of the 
Craft into the cloudy mist of antiquity ; instead 
of endeavouring to ascertain how and when these 
ceremonies were introduced into our present system, 
they have taken it for granted that they were 
derived from the religious mysteries of the 

Now I propose to trace these mysteries, for the 
information of the Brotherhood throughout the 

"The cloudy mists of antiquity" may no longer 
remain ; within the past few years we have dis- 
covered how to decipher and read the ancient 
writings on the walls of old ruined temples and 
cities in Africa, Asia, and North, Central, and 
South America, as well as the ancient writings on 
papyri, and these give the key to unlock the 
mysteries of the past and reveal the origin of our 
Signs, Symbols, and Rituals ; and these I trace 
back to Ancient Egypt, and in no other part of the 
world can the origins be found. 

If we take the theory propounded by Krause, 
what do we find? He has endeavoured to prove 
that Freemasonry " originated " in the association 
of operative Masons, who, in the Middle Ages, 
, travelled through Europe, and by whom the 
Cathedrals and Monasteries were built. But the 


secrets these operative Masons had were received 
from the Chaldean Magicians. These Chaldean 
or Turanian Priests were the working or operative 
Masons of the old Egyptian Stellar Mythos Cult, 
from the seventeenth Nome of Upper Egypt, and 
were styled Companions (see Ritual). » They were 
initiated in the first and second degree only of the 
old Egyptian Cult, because they, and they alone, 
were employed to look after the building of the 
Temples and keep the secrets of the same. 

These Turanians, who were called " Com- 
panions " in Egyptian, only knew the secrets of 
two of the degrees out of the Seven Primary 
Mysteries, which were Astro-Mythological. .We 
ordinary Masons, M.M.and up to P.Z., only have 
these Seven Mysteries. The Greater Mysteries 
belonging to the Egyptian Eschatology were 
ten in number. 

If we trace these old Turanians (operatives) back 
to Egypt, we find them well established at the 
commencement of the Stellar Cult — but it is 
possible to trace them farther back than this, even 
to Early Totemic Sociology. 

In Africa, at the present day, there exist some of 
the Nilotic Negroes, descendants of those who first 
formed the " Nomes " in Egypt ; those who formed 
the seventeenth Nome are now "the Elgunono." 

' By the word " Ritual " used I allude to the Ritual of Ancient 
Egypt, the so-called Book of the Dead. 


These tribes still, at the present time, are mostly 
formed into a " secret brotherhood," and by some 
are called the Blacksmiths. " Horus-Behutet," 
the first worker in metals, is their chief or head 
Deity ; our word T.C. is thus a substituted word. 
Their chief priest is called Ol-Aibon, and they still 
have many of the primary Symbols and Signs we 
use. These, with the Madi (who were the first 
builders) and Masai, ultimately all settled in Egypt 
and formed the early Stellar Mythos people. An 
early exodus from these tribes, to other parts of 
the world, was made by the old Turanians. 
^ The Stellar Cult existed for at least three hundred 
thousand years, as witnessed by records found and 
still extant. These people travelled and went out 
over Europe, Asia, part of North and South 
America, Central America, and the Islands of the 
Pacific, as well as Africa. The remains and ruins 
of the large cities and Temples found throughout 
the world were mostly built by these people. The 
Solar, who came after, built some, but the buildings 
of each are easily distinguished one from the other. 
The former were iconographic, the latter were not. 
They worked out all the revolutions of the Sun, 
Moon, and Stars, and the Ritual of Ancient Egypt 
upon which all doctrines throughout the world 
have been founded. So that for the oldest records 
of our Brotherhood we have to go back as far 
as Totemic Sociology over six hundred thousand 


years. This is proved by the fact that skeletons 
of Stellar Mythos people were found in Lombardy 
in the Pliocene strata — and the above is a low 
estimate for that. 

Now we find from these old Temples that all our 
Signs and Symbols were in use then just as we 
use them now ; there is no difference, except that 
in some cases we have slightly modernised them. 
Their Rituals, with slight modifications, were the 
same as ours. 

Here we see Krause's theory not without some 
semblance of plausibility, as Rome, during several 
centuries, held sway over Gaul and Britain. 
Roman colonists settled in various parts of these 
countries, and with their language and customs 
they imported many of their institutions and 
associations. That of the Builders, or Collegia, 
held their Lodges wherever they established them- 
selves, and no doubt initiated new members, and 
as these countries freed themselves from the yoke 
of Rome the associations would still remain. But 
they at best were only carriers of the " operative 
masons " — Egypt was their birthplace, and we can 
identify the Nome as the seventeenth Nome from 
the Ritual, these names, for instance, " Com- 
panions " — carried out of Egypt by the Turanians, 
who spread over Europe ; Asia, except the North ; 
lower part of North America, Central America, 
South America, as far down as Chili, in the 


Caroline Islands of the Pacific — but not in North 
Asia, Australia, Tasmania, or extreme North 

Chevalier Ramsay stated that modern Masonry 
had its beginning in the Society of Architects 
founded in Scotland under the protection of King 
Robert Bruce, and the title of " Ancient and 
Accepted Masons of the Scottish Rite " may 
possibly have been formed in Scotland there and 
then ; but, if that is so, we must trace the origin 
of this to the Order of Knights Templar, who fled 
to Scotland, and through them to the Ancient 
Mysteries practised in the East. From whence did 
these Templars obtain them? It is well known 
that one of the charges made against Jacques de 
Molay and his associates by their accusers was that 
" they used sacred rites in their initiations." Their 
four oaths are well known, but who knew their 
rites of initiation? The aim of the Society of Archi- 
tects was to perpetuate the ancient Order of the 
Temple, and they continued to use their initiations 
of members, symbols, signs, and some parts of 
the initiatory rites, which had been obtained in the 
East, but they only knew three degrees out of the 
seven less^ and ten greater. The next question 
is : From whence did the Templars receive those 
symbols, and their esoteric meaning, in which we 
plainly trace the doctrines of the old Egyptians? 
No doubt from the Christians, who, like the 


Emperor Julian, the Bishop of Syrmesius, Clement 
of Alexandria, and many other philosophers, had 
been initiated into some of the mysteries by the 
Priests of Egypt before being converted to Chris- 
tianity. In this way may be traced how part of 
the religious mysteries of Egypt, signs and 
symbols, etc., came to Scotland. 

We must remember that the mysteries practised 
by the Samothracia, Greeks, Romans, Pythago- 
reans, the mysteries of Eleusis, the mysteries estab- 
lished by Zoroaster, and the Mahatmas, or Brothers 
of India, all took their origin from the Egyptian 
Eschatology. We see also from the above how, 
in one way, the so-called Higher Degrees (The 
Ten Greater Mysteries) were introduced here in 

The reluctance of the Egyptians to admit 
strangers to the holy secret of their mysteries was 
for a very long time insuperable. They, however, 
at intervals, admitted to the first and second 
degrees personages noted for their wisdom and 
knowledge. They admitted the great philosopher 
Thales, who went to Egypt to learn Geometry and 
Astronomy about 587 B.C., and Zoroaster 5000 
B.C. Another was Eumolpus, King of E.'eusis, who, 
on returning to his country, instituted the mysteries 
of that name, which he had learnt from the 
Priests of Egypt. Orpheus, the Greek poet, was 
also initiated into the first degree. Pythagoras 


was initiated, but had not the courage to go 
through to the third degree, only the first and 
second. The Pelasgians had initiated to the first 
and second degrees the Samothracia. These 
Pelasgians obtained their knowledge from the 
Egyptian Priests direct. 

As regards the origin from the Druids. I have 
given in " Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man " 
the proofs of the origin of the Druids, and where 
they came from. They were High Priests of 
Egypt, who left the mother country at the early 
part of the Solar Cult, and were therefore well 
versed both in the seven Lesser Mysteries and 
the ten Greater Mysteries ; and these practised 
their religious rites in England until the edict 
of Canute prohibited their open worship. Canute 
reigned from 1015 to 1036. To evade persecu- 
tion they resorted to private meetings and secret 
celebrations. I do not entertain any doubt that 
they formed the first so-called ** Lodges " in 
England, as a cloak to screen their religious rites 
and ceremonies, and to keep them as pure as they 
had received them originally from their parent 
sources in Egypt. Many of these old Druid 
Priests joined the Christian Church, and were the 
so-called Culdees, but although they had joined 
the Christian Church they kept themselves very 
much aloof for a long period, up to the twelfth 


These were the last remnants of the old Druid 
Priests — descendants of their Egyptian brethren — 
who practised the pure Eschatology of their fore- 
fathers. Gradually they all died out as a separate 
and distinct class, and those who remained were 
merged into Christianity ; but up to the twelfth 
century at least they brought all their doctrines 
with them, and practised them in secret places, in 
so-called Lodges. 

Here we have one source of the origin of Free- 
masonry, both in the Lesser Mysteries (seven 
Degrees) and in the ten Greater Mysteries — so- 
called Higher Degrees in this country. 

The Druids, in Gaul, were mostly put to the 
sword, others fled to this country for protection, 
when the Roman Christian doctrines were brought 
to them. In America it was the same. As soon 
as the Spanish Roman Priests arrived there they 
persecuted all the Solar and Stellar people, mur- 
dered their priests, overthrew their Temples, and 
scattered them with fire and sword. Yet there is 
sufficient evidence left in their Signs, Symbols, and 
writings on the wall which prove my contention 
that all these had the same Eschatology, signs, 
symbols, and rites as the Old Egyptians, from 
whence they came, and that all these are analogous 
to our own with really very little innovation, con- 
sidering the many thousands of years that these 
have been handed down from country to country. 


and generation to generation, as we must acknow- 
ledge to have been the case if we study the 
history of the human past. 

There were also many who crossed over to 
Europe from Egypt, and spread from Italy into 
France, who possessed and clung to the true 
doctrines, endured torture, and some even death, by 
the early Roman Priests, who tried to usurp the 
temporal power by destroying the spiritual ideas ; 
and yet these brothers would rather suffer death 
than give up their secrets and beliefs. Many of 
these migrations can be traced through Europe 
and finally to Scotland. 

We must also remember that from the down- 
fall of the old Egyptian Empire, up to within 
the last few hundred years, we have possessed 
no readable records of the past history of man- 
kind. Our History of the World is quite recent, 
all the rest is tradition only. Therefore, if you 
do not read the Hieroglyphics and Glyphs, " The 
Writings on the Wall," you still remain in ignorance 
of the history of the human race, and of the origin 
and antiquity of Freemasonry. There were no 
records left otherwise than these. But these 
records have been left for the future student to 
decipher and translate. What records will be left 
in these islands after another twenty thousand 
years have passed, or less? 

Again, is it reasonable to suppose that the huge 



continents of North and South America have lain 
unknown by the great communities of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa until the yesterday of Columbus ; 
unknown throughout the ages of the vast time 
that man has existed? Columbus reached America 
less than five centuries ago, and Eric the Red 
and his early Norsemen in 983. The Chinese 
have written records of trading with America in 
500 B.C., and of sending some of their Buddhist 
Priests there, who returned with the news that 
they had met Priests with religious writings, signs, 
and symbols similar to their own, which, you may 
see by my " Origin and Evolution of the 
Human Race," had been established in America 
at least three hundred thousand years before. 
Let me also state here that there is no 
question of " having one's faith shaken." 
What I write and state for all my Brothers 
throughout the world is The Truth. That is 
what you want to know; that is what you are 
all striving to obtain, and if you follow the evolu- 
tion of the human race in all its phases, you will 
obtain it, but not otherwise. 

I am much indebted to Brother Ham-Smith, 
P.G.D. Surrey, for the following. It is quite 
interesting, but I do not vouch for the facts having 
occurred at the dates as here stated. It is worth 
recording, however, and research should be made 
to discover the truth if possible : — 


" The History and Antiquities of the Borough and 
Town of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis." 
By George Alfred Ellis, Surgeon, etc. 1829. 

Page 4 : " The earliest evidence there is of 
this town is about nine hundred years ago, where 
the Saxon Chronicles state that King Athelstan, 
A.D. 938, in consequence of a false charge being 
wrought against his half-brother Prince Edwin ' 
of a conspiracy to dethrone him, ordered him to 
36 exposed in an open boat without sails or oars 
to the fury of the raging waves." 

Page 5 : "In the year 980 Dunstan [Arch- 
ishop of Canterbury] was Grand Master of the 
fraternity of free and accepted Masons in 

Page -^-^y : " Ralph of Monthermer [who was 
married to the widow of Gilbert De Clare, Earl 
Df Hertford and Gloucester, temp. Edward I] was 
raised to the degree of Grand Master of the beau- 
tiful and sublime mysteries of freemasonry in all 
England at the death of Gilbert De Clare, 1280." 

Prince Edwin, it appears, had visited the East, and while 
here, had been initiated into the subhme mysteries of Free- 
nasonry ; on his return, he instituted a grand lodge at York, 
vas elected Grand Master of the Craft in England, and formed 
he constitution of the English Lodges. It is more than probable 
hat the necessary meetings of the Craft, whose sublime mysteries 
ire excluded from the profane eyes of the communis villous, 
vere the cause of this suspicion of his conspiring against the 
hrone of his brother and led to his murder. 


The following extracts from an historical record 
of the successful efforts made for the Union of 
the Grand Lodges and the final establishment of 
the United Grand Lodge of England in 1813 is 
reprinted from The Freemason of 27th December, 
19 1 3, and will be of interest to readers of the 
foregoing : — 

St. John's Day in winter — the 27th December 
— has always been recognized as the great Festival 
of the Order of Freemasons. It was on this day, 
a hundred years ago, that the Union of the several 
Grand Lodges in England was consummated. 


Formerly England had four Grand Lodges. 
The oldest, and much the strongest, was founded 
at the Apple Tree Tavern, Charles Street, Covent 
Garden, London, in 17 17. Members of it traced 
their origin to an assemblage of Freemasons by 
King Athelstan at York, in a.d. 926. The Scotch 
Lodges did not go back nearly so far. They 
were content to claim descent from those foreign 
Masons who came to their country in the twelfth 
century to build the abbeys of Melrose, Holy- 
rood, and Kilwinning, and there is abundant 
evidence that the Lodges of York and Kilwinning 
were the parents of many Lodges founded in 


various parts of Great Britain. The Brethren of 
York, conscious that their city was the Mecca of 
Freemasonry, and believing that their Time Imme- 
morial Lodge was a direct descendant of that 
which was existing in the fourteenth century, de- 
termined that they would not be behind those 
of London, and in 1725 formed the Grand Lodge 
of All England. Despite its ambitious title, it 
had a very chequered career down to the last 
decade of the eighteenth century. About 1740 
it, as did also the private York Lodge, became 
dormant. Both were revived in 1761, but there 
is no evidence of their existence after 1792. That 
Grand Lodge confined its activities within a limited 
area of "All England." Under its banner were 
two Lodges in the City of York, one each in 
Scarborough, Ripon, Knaresborough, Hovingham, 
Swainton, and Rotherham, in Yorkshire ; one in 
Macclesfield, Cheshire ; and one in Hollingwood, 
Lancashire. The Grand Lodge of All England 
also chartered at York the Grand Lodge of 
England south of the River Trent in 1779. It 
consisted of discontented members of the Time 
Immemorial Lodge of Antiquity, of the Premier 
Grand Lodge (of which Sir Christopher Wren in 
its day was the Grand Master), and it granted 
warrants to only two Lodges, both in London. 
One was named Perfect Observance, the other 
Perseverance and Triumph. The career of this 


" Mushroom Grand Lodge," as the late Bro. W. J. 
Hughan described it, was as inglorious as that of 
its parent. 


The fourth Grand Lodge was the only real 
rival of the Premier Grand Lodge. It was con- 
stituted on July 17th, 1 75 1, at the Turk's Head 
Tavern, Greek Street, Soho, London, as " The 
Grand Lodge of England, according to the Old 
Institutions." Its members were designated 
" Ancients," while those of the body from which 
it had seceded were known as " Moderns." The 
" Ancients " were also spoken of as " Athol 
Masons," they having elected the third Duke of 
Athol as their first Grand Master in 1772, his 
son succeeding to the office at his death. Two 
reasons are offered for the founding of the new 
Grand Lodge. One is that the Regular Grand 
Lodge adopted severe measures against recalci- 
trant and impecunious Lodges. The other is that 
it introduced innovations in the customs of the 
Craft which were particularly objected to by the 
operative section. " The new body," wrote 
the late Bro. W. J. Hughan in his intro- 
duction to the monumental work of his friend, 
the late Bro. John Lane, " Masonic Records, 
17 17-1894," "became very popular, and in a few 
years was no mean competitor ; its prototype and 


senior, but less pretentious organization, liaving 
also to contend against the introduction of the 
' Royal Arch,' which was warmly supported, though 
not originated, by the ' Ancients,' who became 
known as the Grand Lodge of ' Four Degrees,' 
thus (for a time only) placing the parent society 
at a disadvantage." 


The " Ancients " having established many 
Lodges and Provincial Lodges in England and 
in foreign countries, particularly in America, and 
having obtained the recognition of the Grand 
Lodges of Ireland and Scotland, and the almost 
unanimous support of the Grand Lodges of 
America, were eager to maintain their indepen- 
dence, and rejected all overtures tendered by the 
"Moderns" for reunion; and in 1757 unani- 
mously ordered : — 

That if any Master, Wardens, or presiding 
officer, or any other person whose business 
it may be to admit members or visitors, shall 
admit or entertain in his or their Lodge during 
Lodge hours, or the time of transacting the 
proper business of Freemasonry, any Brother 
or visitor not strictly an Ancient Mason con- 
formable to the Grand Lodge rules and order, 


such Lodge so transgressing shall forfeit its 
warrant, and the same may be disposed of 
by Grand Lodge. 

In 1801 the older Grand Lodge issued a counter- 
blast. Some of its members were convicted of 
having patronized and acted as principal officers 
in "an irregular society calling themselves Ancient 
Masons, in open violation of the laws of the Grand 
Lodge " ; and it was determined that the laws 
should be enforced against these offending 
Brethren, unless they immediately abandoned 
such irregular meetings. These Brethren solicited 
the indulgence of the Grand Lodge for three 
months, hoping that during the interval they might 
be able to effect a union between the two 
societies. The indulgence was granted, and " that 
no impediment might pervert so desirable an 
object, the charge against the offending Brethren 
was withdrawn, and a committee, consisting of 
Lord Moira and several other eminent characters, 
was appointed to pave the way for the intended 
union, and every means ordered to be used to 
bring the erring Brethren to a sense of their duty 
and allegiance." Nothing came of this, for two 
years later the Grand Lodge was informed " that 
the irregular Masons still continued refractory, and 
that so far from soliciting readmission among the 
Craft, they had not taken any steps to effect a 


union." Their conduct was deemed highly censur- 
able, and the laws of the Grand Lodge were 
ordered to be enforced against them. It was also 
unanimously resolved : — 

That whenever it shall appear that any 
Masons under the English Constitution shall 
in future attend, or countenance any Lodge 
or meeting of persons calling themselves 
Ancient Masons, under the sanction of any 
person claiming the title of Grand Master 
of England, who shall not have been duly 
elected in the Grand Lodge, the laws of the 
society shall not only be strictly enforced 
against them, but their names shall be erased 
from the list, and transmitted to all the 
regular Lodges under the Constitution of 

LORD MOIRA'S efforts 

In 1806 Lord Moira reported to Grand Lodge 
that he had visited the Grand Lodge of Scotland 
and explained the position relating to the 
. •' Modern " and " Ancient " Masons in England, 
and that the Scottish Brethren had declared that 
they had been always led to think that the 
" Moderns " were of very recent date and of no 
magnitude, and being convinced of their error were 


desirous that the strictest union should subsist 
between the Grand Lodge of England and Scot- 
land, and in proof thereof elected the Prince of 
Wales Grand Master of Scotland. Lord Moira 
further stated that when the Scottish Brethren ex- 
pressed a hope that the differences between the 
English Masons would be speedily settled, he 
replied that after the rejection of the propositions 
of the Grand Lodge by the " Ancients " three 
years before, it could not now, consistently with 
its honour, make any further advances, but would 
always be open to accept the mediation of the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland if it should think proper 
to interfere. Two years afterwards the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland approved the declaration of their 
Scottish Brethren, and pledged itself " not to 
countenance or receive as a Brother any person 
standing under the interdict of the Grand Lodge 
of England for Masonic transgression." In April, 
1809, the Grand Lodge agreed in opinion with 
the Committee of Charity that "it is not neces- 
sary any longer for to continue in force those 
measures which were resorted to in or about the 
year 1789 respecting irregular Masons, and do 
therefore enjoin the several Lodges to revert to 
the ancient landmarks of the Society." This was 
accepted as a step towards the much desired union. 
Still, more than four years elapsed before it was 
achieved ; and then it came about as the result 


of the tactful intervention of three of the sons 
of George III. The Prince of Wales, who was 
initiated in 1787 at the Star and Garter Tavern, 
in Pall Mall, became Grand Master of the Premier 
Grand Lodge of England in 1790. When he 
accepted the Regency he vacated the office, and 
his Brother, 


was elected to succeed him. The venerable and 
worthy head of the " Ancients," the Duke of Athol, 
was, says a contemporary record, " soon convinced 
by the Royal Duke's arguments, strengthened by 
his own good sense and benevolent mind, how 
desirable must be an actual and cordial relation 
of the two societies under one head ; for, to pave 
the way for the Masons, his Grace, in the hand- 
somest measure, resigned his seat of Grand 
Master." He recommended as his successor the 
Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria, he having 
been initiated under the " Ancient " constitution 
in the Union Lodge of Geneva. The Duke of 
Kent was acclaimed Grand Master in 18 13. The 
two Royal Dukes, taking into counsel three dis- 
tinguished Brethren belonging to each society, 
arranged Articles of Union between the two Grand 
Lodges of England, and these were ratified, con- 
firmed, and sealed in each of those Lodges on 
ist December, 18 13. 


The same day a joint meeting of the Grand 
Lodges received the articles " with Masonic accla- 
mation," and to carry them into effect constituted 
a Lodge of Reconciliation, consisting of equal 
members of the Old Institutions and the Constitu- 
tion of England. Every care was taken that the 
parties to the union should be on a level of 
equality. As to the precedence of the Lodges, 
it was arranged that the two first Lodges under 
each Grand Lodge should draw lots for priority. 
The draw favoured the " Ancients," whose Grand 
Masters' Lodge became No. i on the revised roll, 
the Lodge of Antiquity of the Regular Grand 
Lodge taking the second position, No. 2 of the 
" Ancients " in the same -order taking No. 3, and 
the second of the Time-Immemorial Lodges 
becoming No. 4. " For two such old Lodges 
to accept lower positions in the united roll than 
their age entitled them to says much," wrote Bro. 
Hughan, " for the truly Masonic spirit of their 
members, who, to promote peace and harmony, 
consented to their juniors taking precedence of 
Lodges in existence prior to the formation of the 
Premier Grand Lodge." Up to the time of the 
union " Modern " Lodges placed on the roll 
numbered 1,085, while "Ancient" Lodges war- 
ranted between 1751 and 18 13 were 521. The 
reunion of the two Grand Lodges of England was 
consummated with great solemnity on 


ST. JOHN'S DAY, 27TH DECEMBER, 1 8 1 3, 

in the Freemasons' Hall, London. The platform 
on the east was reserved for the Grand Masters, 
Grand Officers, and visitors. Masters, Wardens, 
and Past Masters, all dressed in black (except 
regimentals), with their respective insignia, and 
with white gloves, occupied the sides of the hall, 
the Masters in front, the Wardens behind, and 
the Past Masters on rising benches behind them. 
Care was taken that the Lodges were ranked so 
that the two Fraternities were completely inter- 
mixed. The two Fraternities had previously 
assembled in two adjoining rooms, and having 
opened two Grand Lodges, each according to its 
peculiar solemnities, they passed to the Assembly 
Hall in the following order : — 

Grand Usher with his Staff. Grand Usher with his Staff. 
The Duke of Kent's Band of Music, fifteen in number, 

all Masons, three and three. 

Two Grand Stewards. Two Grand Stewards. 

A Cornucopia borne by a M.M. A Cornucopia borne by a M.M. 

Two Grand Stewards. Two Grand Stewards. 

Two Golden Ewers by Master Two Golden Ewers by Master 

Masons. Masons. 
The nine worthy and expert The nine worthy and expert 
Masons, forming the Lodge of Masons, forming the Lodge of 
Reconciliation, in single file. Reconciliation, in single file, 
rank to rank, with the rank to rank, with the 
emblems of Masonry. emblems of Masonry. 
The Grand Secretary, The Grand Secretary, 
bearing the Book of Consti- bearing the Book of Consti- 
tutions and Great Seal. tutions and Great Seal. 


The Grand Treasurer with The 

the Golden Key. 

The Corinthian Light. 

The pillar of the Junior 

Grand Warden on a pedestal. 

The Junior Grand Warden 

with his gavel. 

The Deputy Grand Chaplain, 

with the Holy Bible. 

The Grand Chaplain. 

Past Grand Wardens. 

Grand Treasurer with 

the Golden Key. 

The Corinthian Light. 

The pillar of the Junior 

Grand Warden on a pedestal. 

The Junior Grand Warden 

with his gavel. 

The Doric Light. 
The pillar of the Senior 
Grand Warden on a pedestal. 
The Senior Grand Warden 
with his gavel. 
Two Past Grand Masters. 
The Deputy Grand Master. 
His Excellency the Count de Lagardje, the Swedish Ambassador, 
Grand Master of the first Lodge of the North, visitor. 
The Royal Banner. 

The Grand Chaplain with the 

Holy Bible. 

Past Grand Wardens. 

Provincial Grand Masters. 

The Doric Light. 

The pillar of the Senior 

Grand Warden on a pedestal. 

The Senior Grand Warden 

with his gavel. 

Acting Deputy Grand Master. 

The Ionic Light. 

The Grand Sword Bearer. 

The Grand Master of 



WITH THE Act of Union in 


Two Grand Stewards. 

Grand Tyler. 

The Ionic Light. 

The Grand Sword Bearer. 

The Grand Master of 



WITH the Act of Union in 


Two Grand Stewards. 

Grand Tyler. 

Sir George Nayler, the Director of Ceremonies, 
having proclaimed silence, the Rev. Dr. Barry, 
Grand Chaplain to the fraternity under the Duke 
of Kent, offered solemn prayer, and Sir George 
read the Act of Union. Then the Rev. Dr. 


Coghlan, after the sound of trumpet, proclaimed 
aloud : " Hear ye : This is the Act of Union, 
engrossed, in confirmation of articles solemnly con- 
cluded between the two Grand Lodges of Free 
and Accepted Masons of England, signed, sealed, 
and ratified by the two Grand Lodges respectively, 
by which they are to be hereafter and for ever 
known and acknowledged by the style and title of 


How say you. Brothers, representatives of the two 
Fraternities? Do you accept of, ratify, and con- 
firm the same? " To which the assembly 
answered : " We do accept, ratify, and con- 
firm the same." The Grand Chaplain then said : 
" And may the Great Architect of the Universe 
make the Union perpetual." To which all 
assembled replied : " So mote it be." Thereupon 
the two Grand Masters and the six Commissioners 
signed the deeds, and the Grand Masters affixed 
the great seals of their respective Grand Lodges 
to them. The trumpet again sounded, and the 
Rev. Dr. Barry, stepping forth, proclaimed : " Be 
it known to all men that the Act of Union between 
the two Grand Lodges of Free and Accepted 
Masons of England is solemnly signed, sealed, 
ratified, and confirmed, and the two Fraternities 


are one, to be from henceforth known and acknow- 
ledged by the style and title of the United Grand 
Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England, and 
may the Great Architect of the Universe make 
their union perpetual." And the assembly said 
" Amen." 


This was followed by a deeply impressive scene. 
" The two Grand Masters, with their respective 
Deputies and Wardens," says a contemporary 
record, " advanced to the Ark of the Masonic 
Covenant, prepared under the direction of Bro. 
John Soane, R.A., Grand Superintendent of Works, 
for the edifice of the union, and in all time to 
come to be placed before the Throne. The Grand 
Masters standing in the East, with their Deputies 
on the right and left ; the Grand Wardens in 
the West and South ; the Square, the Plumb, 
the Level, and the Mallet were successively de- 
livered to the Deputy Grand Masters, and by them 
presented to the two Grand Masters, who severally 
appHed the Square to that part of the Ark which 
is square, the Plumb to the sides of the same, 
and the Level above it in three positions ; and, 
lastly, they gave three knocks with the Mallet, 
saying, ' May the Great Architect of the Universe 
enable us to uphold the Grand Edifice of Union, 
of which the Ark of the Covenant is the symbol, 


which shall contain within it the instrument of 
our brotherly love, and bear upon it the Holy 
Bible, Square and Compass, as the light of our 
faith and the rule of our works. May He dispose 
our hearts to make it perpetual.' And the Brethren 
said : 'So mote it be.' The two Grand Masters 
placed the said Act of Union in the interior of 
the said ark. The cornucopia, the wine, and oil 
were in like manner presented to the Grand 
Masters, who, according to ancient rite, poured 
forth corn, wine, and oil on this said ark, saying, 
' As we pour forth corn, wine, and oil on this 
Ark of the Masonic Covenant, may the bountiful 
hand of Heaven ever supply this United Kingdom 
with abundance of corn, wine, and oil, with all 
the necessaries and comforts of life ; and may 
He dispose our hearts to be grateful for all His 
Gifts.' And the assembly said ' Amen.' " 


It having been found impracticable, from the 
shortness of notice, for the sister Grand Lodges 
of Scotland and Ireland to send deputations to 
the assembly according to the urgent request of 
the two Fraternities, conferences had been held 
with the most distinguished Grand Officers and 
enlightened Masons resident in and near London, 
in order to establish De.rf--' agreement upon all 


the essential points of Masonry, according to the 
ancient traditions and general practice of the Craft. 
The members of the Lodge of Reconciliation, 
accompanied by Count de Lagardje and Bro. Dr. 
Van Hess, and other distinguished Masons, with- 
drew to an adjoining room, where, being con- 
gregated and tyled, the result of all the previous 
conferences was made known. Returning to the 
Temple, Count de Lagardje declared that the forms 
agreed on and settled by the Lodge of Reconcilia- 
tion were pure and correct. These forms were 
recognized as those "to be alone observed and 
practised in the United Grand Lodge and all the 
Lodges dependent thereon until Time shall be no 
more." Then, the Holy Bible spread open, with 
the Square and Compasses thereon, was laid on 
the Ark of the Covenant, and the two Grand 
Chaplains approached. The recognized obligation 
was then pronounced aloud by the Rev. Dr. 
Hemming, one of the Masters of the Lodge of 
Reconciliation, the whole of the Brethren repeat- 
ing it after him, with joined hands, and declaring, 
" By this solemn obligation we vow to abide, and 
the regulations of Ancient Freemasonry now recog- 
nized strictly to observe." 


The assembly next proceeded to constitute one 
Grand Lodge. All the Grand Officers of the two 


Fraternities having divested themselves of their 
insignia, and Past Grand Officers having taken 
the chairs, the Duke of Kent stated that when 
he took upon himself the important office of Grand 
Master of the Ancient Fraternity, his idea, as de- 
clared at the time, u^as to facilitate the important 
object of the Union, vv^hich had that day been so 
happily concluded. And he now proposed that 
his illustrious and dear relative, the Duke of 
Sussex, should be the Grand Master of the United 
Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England 
for the year ensuing. This having been seconded 
by the Hon. Washington Shirley, and carried 
unanimously and with Masonic honours, His Royal 
Highness was placed on the Throne by the Duke 
of Kent and Count de Lagardje, and solemnly 
obligated. The Grand Master then nominated his 
officers : Rev. S. Hemming, D.D., S.G.W. ; Isaac 
Undo, J.G.W. ; John Dent, Grand Treasurer ; 
William Meyrick, Grand Registrar ; William 
Henry White and Edward Harper, Grand Secre- 
taries ; Rev. Edward Barry, D.D., and Rev. 
Lucius Coghlan, Grand Chaplains ; Rev. Isaac 
Knapp, Deputy Grand Chaplain ; John Soane, 
Grand Supt. of Works ; Sir G. Nayler, G.D.C. ; 
Capt. Jonathan Parker, G. Sword Bearer ; Samuel 
Wesley, G. Organist ; B. Aldhouse, G. Usher ; 
and W. V. Salmon, G. Tyler. It was then 
solemnly proclaimed that the two Grand Lodges 


were incorporated and consolidated into one, and 
the Grand Master declared it to be open in due 
form according to ancient usage. The Grand 
Lodge was then called to refreshment, and from 
the cup of brotherly love the Grand Master drank 
to the Brethren, " Peace, Goodwill, and Brotherly 
Love all over the World," and then passed the 
cup. As it was going round, a choir sang a 
piece of music specially composed for the occasion. 


The Grand Lodge was recalled to labour, and 
as the first act of the United Fraternity, the Duke 
of Sussex moved : — 

That an humble address be presented to 
H.R.H. the Prince Regent respectfully to 
acquaint him with the happy event of the 
reunion of the two great Grand Lodges of 
the Ancient Freemasons of England, an event 
which cannot fail to afford lively satisfac- 
tion to their Illustrious Patron, who presided 
for so many years over one of the Fraterni- 
ties, and under whose auspices Freemasonry 
has risen to its present flourishing condition. 
That the unchangeable principles of the Insti- 
tution are well known to His Royal Highness, 
and the great benefits and end of rhis re- 
union are to promote the influence and opera- 


tion of these principles by more extensively 
inculcating loyalty and affection of their 
Sovereign, obedience to the laws and 
magistrates of their country, and the practice 
of all the religious and moral duties of life, 
objects which must be ever dear to His Royal 
Highness in the government of His Majesty's 
United Kingdom. That they humbly hope 
and pray for the continuance of the sanction 
of His Royal Highness's fraternal patronage ; 
and that they beg leave to express their 
fervent gratitude for the many blessings 
which, in common with all their fellow- 
subjects, they derive from his benignant sway. 
That the Great Architect of the Universe may 
long secure these blessings to them and to 
their country by the preservation of His Royal 
Highness, their Illustrious Patron ! 

Resolutions thanking the Dukes of Kent and 
Sussex for " yielding to the prayer of the United 
Fraternities to take upon themselves the personal 
conduct of the negotiations for a reunion, which 
is this day, through their zeal, conciliation, and 
fraternal example so happily completed " ; and 
commending the proceedings of the day to Grand 
Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, were also passed 
before the Lodge was closed " in ample form and 
with solemn prayer." 


II.— The Source of Signs and Symbols. 

By going back to primitive man, the Pygmy, we 
find the first symbol we use. He believed in the 
Supreme Spirit and propitiated elemental powers. 
In the stage of the Nilotic Negro we find more of 
our Signs and Symbols. Following the evolution 
to that of Totemic Sociology, and commencement 
of the Stellar Cult, we have still many more Signs, 
Symbols and Rites of our Order, and the whole 
tale of the Christian doctrines founded. Because 
it was amongst the Masai group in Inner Africa 
that the tradition arose, and is still extant, that the 
Alan-God came from Heaven, suffered, and was 
crucified and rose again. We must remember that 
man at this time had very few words to express 
his ideas and beliefs ;• it was done by signs and 
symbols, and Sign Language, and although this 
has been lost for thousands of years, it is now 
being rediscovered by men who can read this Sign 
Language. The Solar Cult and the Christian Cult, 
which have followed one another, have not in either 
case altered the tale, it is all one and the same 
from the beginning ; that names have altered is 
nothing, different languages have different names 
for the same idea, and because the attributes of 
the One Great God were expressed in " Zootype 
form" during the Stellar Cult, and "Gods and 
Goddesses " in the Solar, whilst at the present day 


these are expressed in words, does not alter the 
meaning, ideas, or beliefs ; these are only altered 
and misunderstood by men who cannot read and 
understand " The Writings on the Walls " ; and 
as regards dates, few, I believe, now would even 
think or believe that man has only existed about 
six thousand years, as assumed from Biblical 
tradition, when we find the skeletons of the present 
type of man in strata of the Pliocene age, six 
hundred thousand years old at least.' Therefore 
whatever Cult our Brothers may have belief in, 
the knowledge of the evolution of the human race 
would only be a greater factor to strengthen their 
belief. If we take the Chinese, and there are 
many Brothers amongst them, we know that they 
went out from Egypt during the Stellar Cult, and 
they have never risen in evolution since. The 
Hindu left at the time of the Solar Cult ; he has 
always remained the same. The white race, 
generally, left at the end of the Solar. The early 
Copts were the first of the Christians in evolution, 
and the white man has gradually developed into a 
higher type of the human. With this development 
into a higher type of man, so his spiritual ideas have 
developed into a so-called higher type of Chris- 
tianity than that which we find at the commence- 
ment of the time of the early Copts. Yet it 

' See " Genesis of Rocks and Ores, " by Brenton Symons, 
F.G.S., C.M.E. 


is all one and the same from the beginning, under 
different names. The original Signs and Symbols 
which our early Brothers had to use in place of 
words, which they had not, have now given place 
to expressions in linguistic and grammatical form, 
of which they were, at that time, still ignorant. I 
am bound to bring this before my Brothers because 
I wish to assure them that I have no intention or 
wish to shake their faith in the Volume of the 
Sacred Law, but, quite on the contrary, wish to 
establish their faith still firmer, more especially 
those who profess the Christian doctrines, by 
proving that these are the highest point of the 
religious conception of the human in his progres- 
sive evolution. 

That the dead were buried in the faith founded 
on the Mystery of the Cross over thirty thousand 
years ago is proved by the Pyramid of Medum and 
other remains still extant ; the so-called Tomb of 
Olham Fodhla, in Ireland, is an instance of this. 
The gnosis of the Crucifixion, however, was the 
same in the Stellar Cult three hundred thousand 
years before this, as is witnessed by the Pictograph 
taken from the Central American ruins (see 
Fig. i). It is over two hundred thousand years 
old, and represents the Crucifixion during the 
period of the Stellar Cult. He is crucified on the 
two Poles — North and South. The Hieroglyphics 
state that He is the God of the North and South, 


He is the Great One of the seven Glorious Ones 
(attributes). A Crown of Thorns is depicted on 
his head. His side is pierced with a spear, from 
whence blood and water is falling on his Spiritual 
Name, which, in Egyptian, is Amsu. He is sup- 

The Crucified Victim. 
Fig. I. 

ported by his four brothers, Amsta, Hapi, Taumutf, 
and Kabhsenuf ; representing Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John of the Christians, represented by 
four squares. Tears are in his eyes, " Ye are the 
tears made by my eye in your name of men." I 


give the different names by which He was known in 
different countries, namely : Horus, of the Stellar 
Cult of the Egyptians ; Huitzilopochtli, of the 
Aztecs ; Zipe, of the Zapotics ; Hacaxipectli, of 
Guatemala ; Ptah-Seker-Ausar, of the Egyptians 
in their Solar Cult ; Tien-hwang Ta-Tici, of the 
Chinese ; Merodach, of the Babylonians ; lu, or 
Ea, of the Chaldeans, Assyrians, and Druids of 
these Islands ; Uiracocha, of the Peruvians, and 
many other names in various parts of this world ; 
yet all one and the same, as proved by the same 
signs and symbols always associated with him in 
whatever part of the world found. 

The signs and symbols herein portrayed read 
that He is the Great Lord aiid God of Heave i, 
situated at the North Pole ; He is God of the Pc .e 
Stars and God of the North and South, and the 
Heavens and Paradise, and his age is given as 
thirty-three years in the Mexican Codices 95 f. ; it 
is written in the Hieroglyphics of Egypt as thirty- 
three years. 

The Eschatology of the Old Egyptians was 
" Their doctrines of Final Things," and they taught 
this to the Brothers by Signs and Symbols and 
various Rites and Ceremonies, in a dramatic form, 
the more to impress it upon the initiates. Their 
Code of Morals was the highest that has ever been 
promulgated by any nation. The Laws of Moses 
were the old laws of Egypt, which has been proved 


by finding the Stelae of Hammurabi, handed on 
from the Sumarians to the Babylonians. This 
Stelae was engraved at least two thousand years 
before Moses lived, and however much it may cause 
a shock to some people, it is true, because this 
Stelae is still extant. Our Brotherhood teaches the 
same, and in the same way. The proof can be 
seen in the Ritual of ancient Egypt. 

Let us now see what the formations of these 
early Lodges were, and the reasons for the same ; 
the ceremony of their initiation ; and, lastly, their 
Signs, Symbols, Secret Words ; and the ex- 
planation and meaning of these. 
The Brothers throughout the 
world can then judge if my 
contention is not right. 

In the Old Stellar Cult, the 
primary formation was a circle. After, when 
the whole of the seven Lesser Mysteries were 
taught, the formation of the Temple was " a 
double square " end to end (Fig. 2), and 
the reason of this was because it represented 
Heaven as a square, and the Earth as a 
square, and the orientation of Temples was South 
for fifty-two thousand years ; then North for at 
least two hundred and fifty thousand years. In the 
centre of the Temple there were three cubes, one 
above the other (Fig. 3), representing the 
Primary Trinity. In some Temples these were 


ornamented by a double axe (Fig. 4). The 
Temples were sometimes called the House of the 
God of the Axe, in their language. The single 
axe, in Egyptian, is termed Neter, and may be 
translated as The Great One — Prince or Ruler is 
probably the correct translation. (The late Sir 
L. Page Renouf agreed with me in this trans- 
lation.) Therefore we have these symbols repre- 
senting The Great One of the North (i.e. Horus), 
The Great One of the South (i.e. Set), and The 







Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

A A 

Fig. <. 

Great One of the Equinox (i.e. Shu), the Primary 

At the principal entrance of the Temples there 
were always Two Pillars. One was the Pillar 
of Set and the other was the Pillar of Horus, 
representing the two divisions of Heaven, North 
and South, and their portrayal was at first in the 
form of Fig. 5. On the top of the columns 
later (see Fig. 15) were four lines, which repre- 
sented the Heaven as a square and the Earth as 
a square ; the Egyptians could not draw perspec- 


tively, but only on the flat, at this early period. 
At the present day these are represented by the 
Celestial and Terrestrial Globes. 

Now this was the form of every Temple through- 
out the world, and at the porchway entrance these 
two Columns always stood ; in whatever country 
these ruins are found the form is the same ; it is 
also the correct form of a Masonic Lodge, and, 
as is well known, these two Columns stood at the 
porchway entrance of King Solomon's Temple and 
bore the names of J. and B. 

These two Pillars, in Egypt, were placed at the 
porchway of all Temples in the Solar Cult to repre- 
sent the entrance of their Amenta ; one was called 
Tatt, the other Tattu. The word Tattu also denotes 
the two Tatt Pillars. The Tatt is a figure of 
stability ; it supports the four corners, and is 
equal to the Square. Thus two Tatts at the 
entrance to Tattu is equivalent to a Double 
Square. Tattu is the entrance or gateway to the 
region where the mortal Soul is blended with the 
Immortal Spirit, and thereby established for ever. 

According to the Egyptian wisdom all these 
Temples were simply representatives, so to speak, 
of their Heaven. Their Priests were human repre- 
sentatives of the Divine Master in his various 
attributes, and bore Divine titles — the same as 
the Principal O's in some of our degrees. Their 
teachings, forms, and ceremonies represented their 


beliefs as to the life that must be led on this 
earth to attain the everlasting life of happiness 
in the next ; and the trials the Spirit would be 
subjected to until that end was accomplished. 

Although the form of our Lodges and the Ancient 
Temples is the same, also the two Pillars or 
Columns at the entrance, we do not have in our 
M.M. Lodges the Cubes in the Centre ; but the 
R.A. does, the reason being that we have divided 
the " seven Ancient Mysteries " in a different 
manner than did our ancient Brethren. 


Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

The Triangle was sacred on account of its 
representing Heaven. The Primary Triangle was 
as No. I, Fig. 6 ; and originally represented Set, 
the God of the South (El Shaddai of the Phoeni- 
cians), and was, in fact, an Ideograph for his 
name. Horus, the God of the North, was also 
represented by a triangle, as No. 2, Fig. 6, which 
is also an Ideograph for his name. Later, when 
Horus became Primary God, the Egyptians asso- 
ciated all the attributes of Set to him, including 
the Triangle of Set, and this was then depicted as 
in Fig. 7, which is a later type of Fig. 8. 


Amongst the oldest Brotherhood the two double 
triangles (Fig. 8) were surrounded by four Uraei 
as guardians of the same ; at a later phase it was 
three double triangles, surrounded with concentric 
circles. At the entrance of their Temples there 
were always " two watchers," each armed with a 
knife. The one outside the door was called the 
Watcher ; the one inside the door was called the 
Herald, as seen in the Veginetta. 

The Egyptian initiatory ceremony was conducted 
with great secrecy and care. The candidates were 
divested of most of their clothing, and a chain, or 
rope of some kind, placed around their neck, to 
signify their belief in God, their dependence on 
Him, and their solemn obligations to submit and 
devote themselves to His will and service. The 
fact that they were neither naked nor clothed was 
an emblem that they were untutored men, children 
of nature, unregenerate, and destitute of any 
knowledge of the true God, as well as being 
destitute of the comforts of life. The chain or 
rope was a symbol that the candidate was being 
led from darkness to light, from ignorance to a 
knowledge of the One True and Living God, 
Creator, and Judge of all things in Heaven and 
Earth. The candidate was blindfolded, and then 
led by a brother (called in Egyptian An-er-f) to 
the door of the Temple or Lodge, which appeared 
as a blank wall in the form of A, Fig. 9. Arriving 


at this door he asked for admittance, and was asked 
by the "watcher" who he was. His answer, 
translated from the Egyptian, was " The Kneeler," 
i.e. Shu. He was then given a password which, 
in Egyptian, is Ra-gririt. The door was an 

equilateral triangle, a 
symbol typical of 
Heaven. The square on 
which he trod as he 
passed through was a 
symbol typical . of 
Earth ; the whole en- 
trance symbolized pass- 
ing from Earth to 
-Heaven. The candidate 
was then conducted 
through long passages, 
and round the Lodge 
seven times ; he had to 
answer various questions, 
words of " power and 
might " being given him. 
Finally, he was con- 

FiG. 9. 

ducted to the centre of the Lodge and asked what 
he desired mostly ; his answer was that Light 
might be given him. The candidate had to com- 
mence his perambulations with his left foot first, 
the reason for which is given in the Papyrus of 
Nesi-Amsu, which gives the destruction of Apap, 

Plate A. 

Grand Masters Apron and Collar. Satit 
presents the Pharaoh ■ Anieuothes III to 
KhnumCi. (Drawn by Faiicher-Gitdin front 
one of the bas-reliefs of the Temple of 
Khnmntt, at Elephantine. This is now 

To face p. 49. 


the greatest serpent of Evil. The left foot was 
first placed on him, and is symbolical of com- 
mencing our journey through life by putting all 
evil thoughts and actions under and away from us ; 
we should tread do\vn the great evils which beset us 
through life. The destruction of Apap is given 
in these words which can be found in the Papyrus 
of Nesi-Amsu : " His body shall be cut in pieces 
and burnt to ashes, and these ashes scattered over 
the face of the earth and water by the four winds 
of Heaven." 

If the candidate turned back, or violated his 
obligations, his Throat was cut and Head chopped 
off (Ritual, Ch. xc.) after his Heart had been 
torn out (Ritual, Ch. xxvii., xxviii., and xl.). 
These Mysteries were the beliefs of the old wise 
men of Egypt enacted in a dramatic form to 
teach the Initiates their beliefs, as to what the Soul, 
or Manes, had to undergo or pass through after he 
had departed this Earthly life, before he could 
enter Paradise. 

Their W.M., or High Priest, was placed in his 
chair with the same Grip and Token as we use at 
the present day, except that it was the other Arm, 
as may be seen on one of the bas-reliefs of the 
Temple of Khnumu, at Elephantine. Here the 
W3I.E. is presented to the master in the chair, 
who then places him in his chair with the Grip 
and Token, and gives him the word of the Chair, 



which in Egyptian is Maat-Heru, meaning " One 
whose voice must be obeyed." 

The emblem of Power and Might which is given 
to the W.M. — the Gavel — took its origin from the 
original sacred sign still used amongst the Pygmies 
in Inner Africa (Fig. lo). It is their symbol for 
The Great One, The Chief. It is just three sticks 

The Nilotic Negroes, who followed the Pygmy 
all over the world, converted the crossed sticks 


Fig. 10. 

Fig. II. 


Fig. 12. 

into a double cross (Fig. i i ) by placing the 
two sticks in a different way. 

In a later phase it was used as a symbol to 
represent the Great One, the Great Prince, in the 
form of a double-headed Hammer or Axe (Fig. 12). 
when stones took the place of these crossed sticks, 
and primitive man began to acquire the knowledge 
of hafting (Nilotic Negroes). 

In the Third, or M.M. degree, the death of 
H.A.B., and the legend attached thereto, is not 
borne out by facts, as we see from 2 Chron. iv. 11: 

n j;'r ' ' 




Muster's Apron and Collar. Tlic I'luiraoli 
Mcnkaiihoii, (Dran'ii by Bondicr from a 
photograph by Fanchcr-Gitdiii.) 

To face p. 50. 

Plate C. 

Companions {F.C.) Apron. Sklc in ihe form 
of a door and the Statue of the Tomb of 
Minnka. {Drawn by Boudier from a 
photograph by M. de Morgan.) 

To face p. 51, 


" And Hiram finished the work that he was to make 
for King Solomon for the House of God " ; and 
Josephus mentions that "he Hved at Tyre long 
afterwards." It is an innovation made by those 
who could not understand the Egyptian prototype, 
when it originated. 

The old Brothers of Egypt wore leather aprons, 
as do Freemasons of to-day, only of a different 
shape. The Egyptian apron was triangular, the 
strings or sash being fixed at the apex. They 
also wore collars. One apron, which I have seen, 
was that of the High Priest. It was yellowish- 
white in colour, made of leather, with tassels of 
gold, bearing the name of Amsu with an emerald 
stone in the centre. The collars worn by the 
High Priests were of gold, while another sus- 
pended collar bore twelve different stones, set in 
gold, representing the twelve divisions of Heaven, 
or the Signs of the Zodiac. As there were various 
degrees — seven in the Lesser Mysteries and ten 
in the Greater Mysteries — so the aprons and 
collars varied in colour and ornamentation as they 
do with modern Masonry. 

The G.W. in our thirtieth degree, as now given, 
and which we are informed is to be found in 
Maccabees (but that is not so), is, in Egyptian, 
" Montu-anhiiri," the meaning of both the ancient 
and modern word being identical. 

The origin of the term " Companions " dates 


at least six hundred thousand years or more. It 
was first used in the time of the Totemic Soci- 
ology, before the Stellar Cult was evolved, which 
we may term Monumental times. Egypt was first 
divided into Nomes or Domains ; one of these 
Nomes was called Aria — the land of the Ari. It 
was the seventeenth Nome of Upper Egypt, and 
the only one which supplied workmen for the 
Temples. These Ari were styled " Companions," 
because they worked in Companies, and were 
initiated in the first and second degrees, and these 
were the originals of the " Operative Masons." 
None of them were initiated beyond the third 
mystery, and they were quite a distinct class from 
the " Old Religious Brotherhood," who employed 
them to build their Temples and initiated them so 
that they should keep the secrets of the same. A 
body of these left Egypt at the time of the Stellar 
Cult and travelled throughout the world wherever 
the Stellar Priests went ; the first exodus was by 
the Botyia, the next by the Turanians. A Priest 
who was initiated into the third always .accompanied 
them, though he was not an Operative himself. 

The buildings of these old Stellar people can 
always be identified in whatever part of the world 
found. These were always iconographic, which 
the people who followed did not copy. Both the 
Stellar and Solar built in polygonal and monolithic 
forms, stones, but the Solar was never iconographic. 


One of the earliest Ideographs for Set, El 
Shaddai, and Horus were the two Eyes (see 
Fig. 13), symbols of the two Pole Stars, North 
and South, originating at Apta, or at the Mount 
of the Equinox — Equatorial Africa. Another 
Ideograph was the two Poles — the Pole or Pillar 
of the South, assigned to Set, and the Pillar or 
Pole of the North, assigned to Horus (Fig. 15), 
the two Tatt Pillars. The Ideograph for the 
name of Set, as El Shaddai, was as No. i, Fig. 6, 
and that for the name of Horus was as No. 2, 

<S><S> '^> 

Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

Fig. 6. Fig. 10 was also an Ideographic Symbol 
for Horus, as Amsu, but was never attached to, or 
associated with, the God Set or El Shaddai. 

The reason why the Operative Masons have gone 
wrong in this part of their ritual is that they have 
mixed up the Gods of the four quarters with the 
One Great God. These only represented attributes ; 
and they have also mixed up the God of the 
Pole Star South, El Shaddai, with the God of the 
Pole Star North, which was Horus, or Ihuh, of 
Israel, or lu, Ea, of the Chaldeans, Assyrians, 
and Babylonians, which is later than the Sumarian 


El Shaddai of the Egyptian Set. These four Gods 
of the four quarters were, first, the brothers, and, 
secondly, the children of Horus ; in Egyptian, 
Amsta, Hapi, Taumutf, and Kabhsnuf ; in 
Mexican, Acatl, Tecpatl, Calli, and Tochtli ; the 
four Bacabs of the Mayas ; the Man, Lion, Ox, 
and Eagle of the R.A.C., and Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John of the Christians. 

That the Operative Masons have seven so-called 
degrees now is because they have converted their 
Initiate, Apprentice, and Master's degrees into 
seven ; but this is of quite a comparatively recent 
date. The Initiates and Apprentices were called 
" Companions," and a few of the higher class 
were "Masters." Bro. Dr. Carr has stated that 
the reasons for much of the Speculative Cere- 
monies can be seen in the Operative Rituals, while 
the Operative Ceremonies get no elucidation from 
the Speculative Ritual, and he specially draws 
attention to the obligation in the First Degree. 
The reason for this is obvious. The Operative 
Masons or " Companions " were initiated in part 
of the old Ceremonies and Rituals only, so that 
they were bound by Oath to keep the secrets of, 
and know the reasons for, the peculiar and dis- 
tinctive construction of the old Temples, and they 
never violated their obligations ; but the Operative 
Masons have no Esoteric Eschatological rites at 
all. These were never taught them, yet these 


existed before the Operatives — when the old 
Temples were formed by a simple double circle 
of stones, twelve in number for each, surrounded 
by bushes. Thus a Brother who understands and 
knows all the ten Greater Mysteries, knows and 
understands all the Operative Masons' work, whilst 
the latter are completely ignorant as to the former. 

But the Operative Masons' origin dates back 
at least six hundred thousand years, and so I have 
no doubt they will be contented with their great 
antiquity. The proofs of all my contentions are in 
the Ritual of Ancient Egypt, and on the various 
monuments ; these I shall always be pleased to 
identify and point out to any Brother who may 
feel interested in this subject. The Operative 
Masons, like the Speculative, have made many 
"innovations" since they left Old Mother Egypt, 
but this is not surprising considering all the vicis- 
situdes they have passed through ; the wonder is 
that so much remains of the original, and that so 
little innovation has taken place after all these 
years, remembering the trials and tribulations 
they have endured. 

Our 24-inch gauge is the old cubit of the ancient 
Egyptians. It is the ideographic hieroglyphic, and 
has the phonetic value of Maat, and indicated, 
primarily, " that which is straight," and was the 
name given to the instrument by which the work 
of the " Craftsmen " was kept straight and 

^' '^^ ^ 


measured ; metaphorically, a rule, or law, or canon, 
by which the lives of men and their actions were 
kept straight and governed. The ancient Brothers 
thus used the word in a physical and moral sense, 
as their naming it Maat clearly proves, therefore 
it is an important instrument, analogous to our 
own, much more so than the majority of the 
Brothers would conceive. 

The British inch was the unit of linear measure- 
ment used at the building of the Great Pyramid, or 
at least it is the nearest standard in existence, as 
it has lost one one-thousandth part of itself after 
being carried from land to land all these thousands 
of years. There is, therefore, more in it than 
being an instrument to "measure our work " and 
being "symbolical of time." One inch is the time 
representation of the Great Year prophetically. 
Five hundred millions of the Pyramid inch is the 
length of the earth's Polar diameter. Twenty- 
five inches give the length of the Sacred Cubit, 
5x5 = 25 angles of the Pyramid. The absolute 
length of the Sacred Cubit is the same used by the 
Israelites and spoken of in the V.S.L. as the one 
ordained by God, and was brought out of Egypt by 
Moses, who, being one of the High Priests of On, 
knew and understood the Mysteries and Secrets of 
the Great Pyramid and the Sacred Doctrines. It 
was different in length to that of the Greek, Roman, 
and latter-day Egyptian Cubit. 


Freemasons, perhaps, unknown to most of them- 
selves, have been the custodians of the seprets 
connected with it from the original, through ages 
of time. Thus we see that the standard and xmit 
of linear measurement, used at the building of 
the Great Pyramid (during the Stellar Cult), from 
which the British inch was derived in primeval 
days of purity and Eschatological worship, before 
the people fell away from their true doctrines, has 
been handed down by us pure and unsullied. The 
Incas, Mayas, and all the Old Stellar Cult people 
before them, possessed and used this same measure. 
The great attempt of the French people to abolish 
alike the Christian religion and hereditary weights 
and measures of all nations ; to replace the former 
by worship of philosophy, and the latter by the 
metre (the French metre scheme depending, in 
a certain manner of their own, upon the magnitude 
of the earth), is not very old, nor yet an improve- 
ment upon the exactness in measurement of these 
Egyptian people ; because, by assuming as their 
unit and standard of length, the one ten-millionth 
of a "quadrant of the earth's surface," that took a 
curved line drawn on the earth's surface, in place 
of the straight axis of rotation, it could not be so 
exact, and, in fact, is far inferior in measurement. 
The British hereditary inch, therefore, is much 
nearer and more exact to an integral earth measure. 
As long as one retains a power of geometry, so 


long will the diameter be thought of greater 
primary importance than the circumference of a 
circle ; and when we come to a sphere in motion, 
the axis of its dynamical labour shall hold a vastly 
superior importance, especially when the earth's 
equator is not a true circle. Thus we see that 
this symbol has a great claim upon our attention, 
and we have to return to the Egyptians of the 
Stellar Cult for its origin. 

The origin of the Blazing Star was the Egyptian 
" Sothos," and is shown in Zootype form as 
Anubis, who guided the souls through the Under- 
world, and its allusion as the Star which guided 
the Wise Men is a recent version of the old (see 
Ritual). In another form, as " The Bright Morning 
Star " — the Star with eight rays — it represents 
Horus of the resurrection. It was typified by 
Orion, the eightfold one, the highest of the seven, 
with the essence of these to make One — The One, 
therefore eight. In Revelation the Son of God 
promises to give the Morning Star to him that 
overcometh ; " as I also have received of my 
Father ; and I will give Him the Morning Star " 
(Rev. ii. 28). The Morning Star was equally 
identified with Horus ; "I know the power of the 
East ; Horus of the Solar Mount ; the Calf in 
the presence of God ; and the Star of Dawn " 
(Ritual, Ch. cix.). Henceforth the Morning Star 


was given to the followers of Horus, therefore, 
we, as descendants of the original brothers and 
followers of Horus, still retain the symbol. 

It was the Star of Horus, and his guide, which 
led him to Paradise when he seated himself upon 
his Throne, and then Horus gave his Star as a 
guide to his followers (see Ritual). In one 
representation in the Egyptian he is seen with the 
Star on his head, beckoning on his followers. 

The Masonic Square is depicted in many of the 
Ancient Temples, and also in the Great Pyramid. 
In the Egyptian Hall of Judgment Osiris is seated 
on the. Square whilst judging the dead. It is also 
portrayed as the corner-stone of the building, 
and as the Foundation of Eternal Law in the 
Court of Divine Justice. The Egyptian name of 
it is Neka. It was first employed in squaring 
the stones of the builders, and symbolically in 
squaring the conduct in the sphere of morals of the 
Brotherhood. Maat is also depicted as sitting 
on the Square. Thus we have this symbol bearing 
the same interpretation as in Masonry. Among the 
Egyptians, when it was employed in squaring the 
stones of the builder, it denoted Creation accord- 
ing to Eternal Laws or understanding rules, it 
was the seat of Justice, and of judging right from 
wrong, " To bring the material into perfect form 
and to reject that which was not perfect, both 
physically and morally." To build on the Square 


as a fourfold foundation, is to build for ever. 
Some of the Operative Masons were classed and 
called, in Egyptian, Stone-squarers. 

The ancients used the rough and smooth Ashlar 
as much as we do. The smooth Ashlar, or Cube, 
symbolically represented and signified Truth. The 
twelve Camps and the twelve Banners of the 
Children of Israel represent the original characters 
in their Astronomical Mythology, and were given 
first to the twelve Thrones or divisions of Heaven 
in the Stellar Cult, and in the Zodiac, in the final. 
Thus at first they represented twelve Stellar 
powers, and around many Temples we find these 
twelve depicted by Pillars of Stone. The original 
characters in the Astronomical Mythology, that 
were given the twelve Thrones or Camps, with 
separate and distinctive Banners, or Totemic Zoo- 
types, were : Sut, Horus, Shu, Hapi, Ap-Uat, 
Kabhsenuf, Amsta, Anup, Ptah, Atum, Sau, Hu. 
These were the Kamite originals, brought over 
and converted into the Banners of the twelve 
Camps or Tribes of Israel. 

The four principal Banners in the R.A.C. took 
their origin from the four Brothers, or Children 
of Horus. They are to be found all over the 
world, wherever the Stellar Cult existed, and 
appear under a great variety of names. 

The origin of the F.C. Sign has been given on 
page 340, " Signs and Symbols of Primordial 


Man," and the origin of the D.C. Symbol on 
page 307. 

None of our passwords are of pure Egyptian 
language, because these were lost for thousands 
of years ; we use many Hebrew words which 
mean the same as the Egyptian. I have dis- 
covered the old secret words, some of which I 
have given you. The true word for the Master's 
chair is Maat Heru — " One whose voice must be 

The first worker in Metals was not T.C. ; the 
P.W. in Egyptian is Horus-Behutet, but any 
Brother who is interested will find all in the Ritual 
of Ancient Egypt. Dr. E. A. WaUis Budge, in 
"The Gods of the Egyptians," page 485, states : 
" It is, of course, impossible to say who were the 
* blacksmiths ' that swept over Egypt from South 
to North, or where they came from," but believes 
" that they represent the invaders in predynastic 
times, who made their way into Egypt from a 
country in the East, by way of the Red Sea, and 
by some road across the eastern desert— that is, 
through the Wadi Hammamat. They brought 
with them the knowledge of working in metals 
and of brick-making, and having conquered the 
indigenous people m the South— i.e., those round 
about Edfu— they made that city the centre of 
their civilization, and then proceeded to conquer 
and occupy other sites and to establish sanctuaries 
for their God." 


But I have proved that man originated in Africa 
and not Asia (" Origin and Evolution of Primi- 
tive Man "), and these came up from the 
South — Nilotic Negroes, the Kaverondo tribes. 
Remnants of these still exist in Africa. These 
were workers in iron and copper ; and amongst 
these people the blacksmiths are called 
" Yothetth " ; there is also a separate class 
called " Uvino," and amongst the Gemi Tribe the 
blacksmiths were founded into a religious secret 
society, and still possess all the secrets of Horus 
of Edfu. Horus was their Great Chief in their 
Hero-Cult, and is the Chief Artificer in Metals 
— i.e. he was recognized as " the Chief Hero " 
of this Clan or Secret Society, in the time of the 
Totemic Sociology. 

It must be interesting to know that amongst the 
Nilotic Negroes, and natives of South Africa, when 
they wish to convey the fact that they are speak- 
ing the absolute truth, or when they have as now 
sometimes to swear in a court of law that they 
are speaking the truth, they draw the right hand 
with fingers extended (some the index finger alone) 
across the throat, accompanied by the words, 
" Nisho i nkiso e perzulu," or if they omit the 
words, as amongst some tribes, they point upwards 
with the index finger and thumb extended, the 
other fingers being flexed upon the palm. The 
words mean, " God cut my throat if I break this 


oath or do not tell the truth." It is the most 
binding oath of natives in Africa. 

Many of our signs and secrets exist amongst 
these African people at the present day, and have 
been handed down from generation to generation 
by the old Turanians. It was these " blacksmith 
men " who knew how to smelt iron ore and forge 
the metal into weapons of offence and defence, that 
formed themselves into the " big clan of black- 
smiths," having Horus as their Astronomical 
Chief. They came up from the South to the North 
in predynastic times, and, having conquered the 
Masaba Negroes and lower types of Nilotic 
Negroes, who were then the inhabitants of the 
land of Egypt, established themselves in Egypt, 
making Edfu their chief city and centre. 

The Egyptians called these " followers of 

Horus " Mesnitu, or Mesniti, which, I believe, was 

the original name for all their tribes, and which 

may now be applied to the Masai Group. As we 

know, Horus was their deified God, and as Edfu 

became their centre, he was styled " Lord of the 

Forge City," "The Great Master Blacksmith." It 

was here that they first built a sanctuary or temple, 

which was called Mesnet. One hieroglyphic wliich 

they used (Fig. i6) proves that these 

people were those belonging to the 

TIT • T~. • . , Fig- i6. 

Masai ancestors. Priests were appointed 

to attend to the Temple. One might say 


that this was the first representative of our 
Masonic Temple. Those who erected and looked 
after the construction of the Temple were 
styled " Companions." Thus we see that our word 
T.C. is a substituted name. The original and 
real " Great Master in Metals " was " Horus of 
Edfu " — or " Horus-Behutet." I have given the 
above fully as an example of the falsity of some 
of the secret names we have substituted for ihe 
originals. Many other words which we have 
adopted have no relation or meaning to the 

But the meaning of the mysteries could only be 
known whilst the genuine gnosis was authentically 
taught. This had ceased when the Christian 
Sarcolatry literalized the mystic drama of Amenta, 
the Earth of Eternity, as a more tangible-looking 
human history and a new revelation sent from 
God. Yet it is at least six hundred thousand 
years old. From these mysteries the ceremonies 
of the Masonic Brotherhood have been handed 
down from generation to generation ; re-edited 
and altered only to conform with our present ideas 
— as, for instance, the statement : " The six periods 
of the world's existence, now about to close with 
the second advent, when time shall be swallowed 
up in Eternity," has no meaning, nor has it any 
significance in its present form. 

The Great Pyramid of Egypt and Stellar Cult 


explain the Mystery. The key to its meaning 
is the Seven Pole Stars, and the periods of 
precession of the same, which was also figured as 
Seven Eyes or Seven Circles, in consequence of 
these being a figure of a Cycle. 

As a mode of measuring time and periods 
of the Great Year by the Stellar Cult, the 
eye or circle came to the full "as at first " 
seven times at seven stations of the Pole, in the 
Cycle of Precession. As a type the Eye might be 
full, once a month, once a quarter, once a year, 
once in a thousand years ; in 2,155 years ; 3,716 
years, or in the Great Eye of All — The Eye of 
the Eternal once in 25,827 years (Ritual, 
Ch. cxl.-cxiv.). 

The submergence of seven Pole Stars involved 
the same number of .^eluges, and marked the 
periods of the world's existence in the Cycle of 
Precession, which culminated in the great deluge 
of all, not to be swallowed up in Eternity, but to 
recommence again (only to be swallowed up in 
Eternity when the Pole Stars cease to exist). The 
Mystery of the seven Circles is the same as the 
Mystery of the seven Stars of Revelation ; it is 
the Mystery of the Celestial Heptanomes in the 
Stellar Cult of the old Egyptians. 

The " Second Advent " marks the time of origin 
of this, which was at the time that these old 
teachers had marked the end of the second revolu- 



tkm of the seven Pole Stars rUrsa Minor), from 
the tmie of thdr first observing and recording- The 
proof of which the>^ have left in Egypt on the 
momtniaits and in the Ritual — observations lasting 
up to that time 51,654 years, or two revolutions. 
Therefore, "ohe six periods of the world's exist- 
eoce were represented by the six Pole Stars in 
Prece^on, with the seventh added, which, when 
aided, or about to change to re-precession, repre- 
seated the Great Deluge or Eternity of the Great 
Year, when all was at an end, to recommence 
agam with another life or precession." It was 
astronomical mythology at first, a deluge being 
the aiding of a cycle of time. It became a natural 
type of an aiding of time in the uranographic 
representaiicm, but in no other than in an astrono- 
mical soise of re-beginning at the same point of 
departare as in the beginning. It will re-begin 
again in the great circle of precession, but only 
as a matter of chronology. 

In the great year of precession there were seven 
stations of the celestial pole, in these constellations : 
I, Draconis ; 2, the Lesser Bear ; 3, Kepheus ; 4, 
Cygrrus ; 5, Lyra ; 6, Hippopotamus ; and 7, 
Herakles Cthe Man^ These were the seven sustain- 
ing powers of Heaven, the seven Pillars, seven 
Mounts, seven divinitias, called Lords of Eternity. 
The drcuit of precession first outlined by the move- 
ment of the celestial pole was the circle of the 


eternal— or sevoi etei-ij^i — Jii Ji they imaged by 
the Shennu-ring. The end of the Great Year, 
determined by t': : aU, ocxnured in the 

sign or cons: "" f Man. Hooce whm 

they convert: •""*'> Solar Cult, the 

Brothers of : -^ true gnosis, 

have fallal i:.:o 2 -^ skal error, 

~ they sdll practise 

:.-enteenth and c . 
R -ist be interestiii^ : ^ 

.ise here we find in one of the cer 
or the old brotherhood die candidate had the veil 
of darkness (a net) over his bead, so that he was 
miable to see. With the assistance of (in £gyptian) 
Se-meri-fj, he was led or had to r»55? through diffi- 
culties, danger, and darkr.ess. . ch he was 
presented to the Great C ^ - Chiefs, 
the \'eQ b^ng removed b ;::"him 
to hght, life, health, an:: -,.::. ^..i j.„ the 
glorious company of Princes^ in which he was giv«i 
a place. He was first presmted and conducted by 
.\n-maut-ef, who saith - ** I am ccxne to you, ye 
great circle of Princes in Heaven, upcm earth, and 
in the world below ; I bring to you N — ^ void of 
offence towards any. Grant that he may be with 
you daily." He is conducted by Se-meri-f durough 
the valley of the shadow of deadi» and after oxNint- 
ing sev«a st^is is presoited Id die Glorious Princes 
with these words : ** I come to you a circle of 


Princes, and I bring N — to you ; Grant to him 
bread, water, and air (provender of the altars) and 
an allotment (or seat) in the Sechit-hotep, like 
Horus." Thoth having removed the dark net, he 
is invited to unite, or join in, the circle, and feast. 
He states : "I have given bread to the hungry, 
water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, and a 
boat to the shipwrecked." " Most Illustrious " 
is an Egyptian title used for the Master of Masters 
(Ritual, Ch. xiv.). 

We have likewise mixed up our degrees into 
thirty-three, some part of the first original seven 
are now intermixed with so-called Higher Degrees. 
The original Degrees were seven Lesser and ten 
Greater. The seven Lesser belonged to and origi- 
nated with the Old Stellar Cult. The ten Greater 
belonged to and took their origin in the Solar Cult. 
Some of our Signs and Symbols date back to 
Primary Man, and in tracing his evolution we 
find how these have originated and one added to 
others, and how some of these have been changed 
with the different Cults. 

If we merely consider the tokens of recognition, 
the passwords, secret words, and the decorations 
of the Lodges, according to the degrees into which 
modern Masonry is divided, we find that many 
of them are taken from the V.S.L., and are symbo- 
lical of events, real or imaginary, some of which 
are said to have taken place in those comparatively 


modern times which followed the decline and 
destruction of the old Egyptian Empire, and 
marked the commencement of the Christian era ; 
others as having occurred before the Christian 
Cult commenced, others at the building of King 
Solomon's Temple, all of which some think, and 
have stated, have nothing to do with the 
Religious Mysteries of the Egyptians that were 
in existence ages before. Where do those who 
positively affirm that all these have not been de- 
rived from the Egyptians suppose they originated? 
From whence did the above obtain them? It is 
open to all students to confirm these observations 
and translations, or to bring forward further 
evidence in which they will critically demonstrate 
that the photographs I have taken of these Signs 
and Symbols still existing on the walls of Ancient 
Temples and walls of ruined cities, in Africa, Asia, 
Central, North, and South America, as well as 
other parts of the world, have nothing whatever 
to do with those in use amongst ourselves. Yet 
these are identical in every form and shape, what- 
ever may have been the esoteric meaning given 
to them by the initiated of these countries. 
Further, the translations of these old Rituals, which 
we have now discovered and can read, are 
analogous to our own ; at the same time, many 
innovations have naturally been made because it 
became necessary to replace those that were lost, 


and to meet a higher state of evolution which man 
has now attained. 

The proofs I have here brought forward are 
sufficient to prove my contention critically ; yet 
there are still many more to be found in " Signs 
and Symbols of Primordial Man " and the Ritual 
of Ancient Egypt, and I now leave it to all my 
Brother Masons to say, after a critical examination 
of the evidences, if my contention is justified 
or not. 



Can the unity of the world be accomplished by 
Freemasons? Yes ; and by Freemasons only. But 
not yet. That is the answer. Why not yet? is 
the question to be answered. One of the reasons 
is because the majority of Freemasons do not in 
reality carry out in daily practice the sublime tenets 
of the Brotherhood. And why? There are many — X 
reasons. I will t y and enumerate some for the 
good of my brother Freemasons, and I hope that 
this may bear fruit both here and in foreign lands. 
First. — Because the historical aspect of Free- 
masonry is not known except to a few students of 
the Craft. The majority of the Brotherhood have 
been, and are, content to think that the history of 
Freemasonry is entirely modern. They have never 
studied it ; have never thought what it was, and 
is. We have no history of the Craft for those 
who cannot read ancient writings, except where 

I have given them a decipherment and transla- 



tion of these, which probably many have never 
heard of, and few have read. 

Beyond my works there is no history of Free- 
masonry, save in its modern aspects, except that 
which is disclosed in ancient writings. Few 
Brothers have studied the history of the human 
race and evolution of man, which alone contains 
the secret of the development of Freemasonry. If 
Freemasons studied this, even only in a minor 
degree, they would see and understand the evolu- 
tion, or rather revolution, that is now taking 
place in this country at the present time, and 
which, if continued in its present phase for a flew 
more years, will throw them back again, in the 
British Isles at least, to .that chaos from which 
Freemasonry has many times already suffered. 
Without a knowledge of the past there cannot 
be any guide to the future. The present and 
continuous thought of our Brotherhood, as well 
as of others amongst the majority, is one of self), 
and great indifference to the feelings and welfare 
of others, except when it specially affects them- 
selves, and it is here we have the 

Second Cause.— Those of the Craft who are 
striving to bring about that high ideal of brother- 
hood to be a reality, and not a sham, are not 
supported with that fraternal activity which is so 
desirable. There are many Brothers who care 
nothing but to gain honours, which are a sham 


to many who wear them. Others only think of 
Charity. So far, that is right and good, but that 
is not Freemasonry ; nor will ever Freemasonry 
be advanced further in the evolution or the 
coalescing of the Brotherhood into one great 
fraternal and universal whole by it. 

The men of the various Governments all the 
world over think nothing of the true benefit of 
the human race ; with them it is party politics, a 
repetition of self, position, and aggrandisement, 
to be obtained at any cost. Possibly, if they 
have ever studied the rise and fall of nations, 
they may be conceited enough to try and abase 
their thoughts and obliterate their better-thinking 
powers, and so, deceiving themselves, make them- 
selves believe that they cannot, or will not, fall 
into the same evils which have followed every 
nation that has entered on a similar course. Vain, 
ignorant, and foolish thoughts and actions, opposed 
to the divine laws of nature, can only have one 
result and termination. 

In the past history of the world there are two 
causes only, or primary factors, which paved the 
way for the downfall and destruction of every 

The first is the dissension of the Priests amongst 
themselves, and, as a result which must naturally 
follow such dissensions, the introduction of 
Socialism. No people have ever risen to be a 


great nation and then fallen and been destroyed, 
except for these two causes. This is now being 
enacted again in this Empire, the greatest the 
world has ever seen. Are there any persons— any 
Brothers in our great fraternity — so foolish as to 
think that we can escape that doom and destruc- 
tion which are awaiting us by continuing on such 
a course? The result and efifect on Freemasonry 
cannot be expressed and demonstrated adequately 
in this work. Every Freemason who has had any 
experience knows the bitterness and vindictive- 
ness with which the Roman Catholic Church 
treats the Brotherhood — and how much greater, 
if possible, will be the effect of the intro- 
duction of Socialism, which is fast pervading and 
threatening to eat the life out of our country. 
This is one phase of imminent and actual danger 
that is threatening our Brotherhood in a very 
acute form ; it is actual, it is real, however much 
we may wish to close our eyes, or however much 
indifference we may assume. 

Only a few years ago we, in this country, went 
through great and acute tension — that danger which 
threatened war between us and the United States 
of America. That has passed, and will never 
return in an acute form again. Why? Because 
the Brotherhood sent their great representative, the 
Grand Master of Illinois, to this country, and I 
had the great pleasure to meet him at the Q. C. 



Lodge, when he gave the message of peace and 
brotherhood : " There shall be no war between 
the United States of America and England ; we 
are of one Brotherhood, and the Freemasons of 
U.S.A. have decided that there shall be no war, 
now or ever, between the two countries, and I am 
delegated to come here and tell you this, repre- 
senting over a million of Brothers, and ask you 
in return to say there shall be no war." What 
a glorious triumph for the Brotherhood ! 

Did the authorities who at present govern us 
try and bring about the same result with the 
recent friendly deputation of the Brotherhood 
from Germany, or only talk platitudes — or were 
they unsuccessful in their endeavours? ' 

We boast of a grand and perfect organization of 
our great Brotherhood. Have we any organiza- 
tion that we can rely upon? Have we any leaders 
of men? How many in those who govern the 
Craft? How many Brothers have we who work, 
and wish, and act for the one universal Brother- 

If our great Brotherhood were the perfect 
organization that many suppose, with a govern- 
ment of ** leaders of men " whose ambition was 
only for the good of the Craft, the peace of the 
world, with the universal fraternal relations which 

' We know now that they were, for since writing the above 
War has been declared ; it is unnecessary to dilate on it. 


our tenets profess, there would be no war ; there 
would be no downfall. We are numerous enough, 
we are strong enough, to govern the world, but 
we are not universally organized, and without 
this we are useless and impotent to form that unity 
of universal brotherhood which characterized Free- 
masonry two hundred thousand years ago. The 
mere talking of platitudes, what we are, and what 
we ought and wish to be, is useless without action, 
and yet there is apparently no action at present. 
We have numbers of great and good men in our 
ranks, and many in the Grand Councils and 
Governing bodies. Let them take action ; the 
whole of the Brotherhood will support them. No 
Generals will ever have, had such a devoted and 
large army as our Brotherhood will prove them- 
selves to be. Let them lead with resolute action, 
and fear nothing, true to the principles of the 
Craft, without fear or favour, pure and unsullied ; 
without sword, blow, or shedding of a tear, that 
great ideal would be accomplished. There can 
be no fear of the dissentient Priesthood now. 

We have no dogmas or creeds to confuse the 
faith and belief in the One Great Eternal and 
Divine Architect of the Universe, Creator of All 
Things, therefore no question of a difference of 
creed would obtrude itself, or cause any seces- 
sion amongst the Brothers of various climes and 


As for Politics — What antics do some creatures, 
calling themselves men, descend to for party 
reasons I The grandest of all the Divine Creator's 
works — Man — has been degenerated into the basest 
of animals. Many, a disgrace to humanity, have 
no thoughts of the hereafter, or no real wish for 
the advancement of their fellow-creatures. What 
they profess is one thing, but what their actions 
denote is something totally antithetic. 

I say, therefore, to all Freemasons throughout 
the world, organize under leaders of men who 
will act without fear or favour ; each one of you 
be true to the grand Brotherhood ; be true to the 
tenets of the Craft, and let these be a guide to 
your daily life, ever remembering that we are all 
of one Brotherhood, which is beyond any words 
to express. Life here is short, the life to come 
is for eternity. Try and think what eternity is. 
By your universal combination you possess the 
dominant power for the advancement and good 
of humanity generally. If you exercise these 
powers, the Divine Creator will be with you, will 
prosper and assist you. If you fail in this and 
" bury your talents," He will disperse and scatter 
you, as He has done before, and wait until other 
and more enlightened generations of the human 
family arise and take your place. 



Two very interesting articles on the Great Pyramid 
by Mr. F. E. Leith, of New Zealand, appeared in 
The Freemason — some of many that have been 
written on this subject — but his are of great import- 
ance and interest. It is a pity, however, that Mr. 
Leith has not studied the " Ritual of Ancient 
Egypt," because the Pyramid is part of the Ritual 
written in Stone. Therein he will find a definite 
answer and solution to all his questions. The two 
books he quotes are perverted parts of this ancient 
book, the oldest in the world. " The Secret Doc- 
trine of Madame Blavatsky " shows a small amount 
of knowledge — gained principally, I beheve, in India 
— of this Ritual, mixed with a great many errors 
and hypothetical ideas which, critically, must fall 
to the ground. She uses terminology she cannot 
understand, which without the interpretation from 
the Ritual has no meaning. I give an example, 
which is sufficient, although a dozen might be 

taken : — 



" Listen ye Sons of the Earth to your instruc- 
tors, the Sons of the Fire, learn there is neither 
First nor Last, for All is One Number issued from 
No Number. Learn what we, who descend from 
the Primordial Seven, we who are born of the 
Primordial Flame, have learned from our fathers. 
From the effulgency of light the ray of ever- 
darkness sprang in space the re-awakened energies. 
The one from the egg, the six and the five. Then 
the three, the one the four, the one the five, the 
twice seven, the sum total. And these are the 
Flames, the Essences, the Builders, the Force, 
the Divine Man." 

In the Egyptian representation there are seven 
Souls of life-forces recognized in nature. Six 
of these were pre-human — elementary forces or 
powers born of the Primary Great Mother, when 
there was yet no human soul distinguished from the 
six that were souls, such as light or air, earth or 
water, and animal or vegetable life. The seventh 
Soul was human. This was the Soul of Blood, 
brought forth by a goddess in the human likeness. 
The Blood Mother was imaged by the Virgin 
Neith (see " Signs and Symbols of Primordial 
Man "). These six were pre-anthropomorphic, the 
seventh was human, 6 + 1=7. They were the 
elementary children of the Great Mother, six 
Brothers and One the leader, or Great One of the 
company. Sut, the male Hippopotamus ; Sebek, 


the Crocodile ; Shu, the Lion ; Hapi, the Ape ; 
Anup, the Jackal ; Kabhsenuf, the Hawk ; and 
One the Elder Horus, the Human, as The Chief, 
This was the same in Totemism and the mythology, 
and all descended from the Great Mother, who 
was mythical. 

The change in the human descent from the 
motherhood to the fatherhood is not apparent in 
the mythology until the time of Ptah, the father 
of Atum-Ra, but these seven were carried on from 
their Totemism and Mythology to the Stellar 
Mythos, and from the Stellar to the Lunar, then to 
the Solar, and finally are brought on in the Escha- 
tology in different forms and characters, and in the 
present day are represented both in the Hebrew 
and the Christian doctrines in various forms. It 
is in Atum-Ra, or Tum, who was both male and 
female, that we find " one all Parent." In the 
Ritual, ch. xvii., Tum is described as giving birth 
to Hu and Sa as the children of him who now 
unites the Father and Mother as divinity in one 
person. Hu denotes matter, Sa or Ka signifies 
spirit. This creation then is from blood and 
spirit, " the double primordial essence " first 
assigned to Ptah. 

These were the seven Souls or elementary powers 
represented by Zootypes, in the primary form, 
and were the primordial forms of the primary 
powers that were derived at first from the Mother 


Earth and the elements in external nature, and 
these gods became astronomical or astral, as the 
Khus or Glorious Ones in the Celestial Hepta- 
nomes of Heaven in seven divisions. In Stellar 
Mythos (at the time of the building of the Great 
Pyramid) they became the seven Glorious Ones, 
seven Pole Stars (Ursa Minor), whom we read of 
in the Ritual (ch. xvii), who were the seven with 

Fig. 17. 

Horus in Orion, seven with Anup at the Pole of 
Heaven, seven with Taht, seven with Ptah, and i 
finally with Ra and Osiris as the seven Gods of 
Eternity. The three represented, Sut, Shu, and 
Horus (see Fig. 17), formed the primary Trinity 
and the primordial Triangle ; Horus situated at the 
North Pole Star ; Sut at the South, and Shu at 
the Equinox. This was represented as the Triangle 



of Heaven, and was typified by the door of 
Pyramid, which was a triangular stone revolving 
on its axis (see " Signs and Symbols of Primordial 
Man "). The one and the four. The one was 
Horus — the four were the four brothers of Horus, 
afterwards called the children of Horus, who were 
the four supports of Heaven when this was repre- 
sented by the Square — and here in the Pyramid 
symbolized by the four stones, which form a 
square over the entrance. The " flame born of a 
flame " was Horus, the child of Hathor, who came 
forth at dawn as the Young Sun God. Hathor, 
the Moon Goddess, descends into the underworld, 
and there meets the Sun, and obtains regeneration 
of Light from the Sun (Lunar mythology). In 
Ritual, ch. xvi., it is stated : " Thou art Horus, 
the Son of Hathor, the flame born of a flame." 
Here Horus is born and is represented as the 
Child of Light, who became in the Eschatology 
the Divine Man. 

" The one from the Egg ! " How would 
Madame Blavatsky have rendered the meaning of 
this mystery? Yet in the Ritual it is plain. The 
God of the Earth was Seb, whose Zootype in the 
mythology was a Goose that laid the Egg. Now 
the Egg that was laid was the Sun setting in the 
West, which was " hatched out " in the under- 
world and came forth in the East as the Young 
Sun — " Giver of Light," etc. — and was typical of 


Horus, the Young Sun God. Her book is a 
mixture of a little of all the Mythologies and 
Eschatology jumbled together, and has no mean- 
ing without the interpretation of the Ritual of 

The Second Pyramid (one of three) was built 
to memorize Sut. " The Pyramid of Sut, when 
Sut was the first. The God of the Pole Star 
South, El Shaddai." How long Sut reigned as 
God of the South it is impossible to state, but 
that he did so for many thousands of years there 
is ample proof still extant. It was known by 
these old wise men of Egypt that as they travelled 
North from their original homes — Equatorial Pro- 
vinces — Sut would go down and disappear in the 
underworld, and that Horus (North Polar Star) 
would rise in the ascendant and be permanently 
established for ever. Hence the changes, first from 
Sut being a primary God, second as a brother to 
Horus, and third, that " he descended " as Horus 
" ascended." He then became the type of the 
Great Evil One in one form, and Ap-Uat, a form 
of Set-Anup, in another, the guider of the way 
of the underworld. This is written and symbo- 
lized in the Second Pyramid. It is also symbolized 
as the change from the worship of El Shaddai 
(Phoenician name of Sut) to the worship of Ihuh, 
Hu or lu Eu, and corresponds to the change from 
the Eloistic to the Jehovistic God, which was the 


change from the Stellar to the Solar Mythos 
(i Chron. xii. 5), 

As regards age, the Pyramids were erected at 
the earliest time of these astronomical observations, 
at the time that Sut (El Shaddai) was the supreme 
God of the South, situated at the South Pole Star. 
He was always represented as red, and the Arabs 
have a tradition that this was the burial-place of 
Sut — but of course Sut was mythical, only a type, 
and represented night or darkness after. The 
Pillar of Red Brick, being less permanent, went 
down as predicted in the deluge as a figure of the 
Southern Pole, whereas the Pillar of Stone (North 
Great Pyramid) remained for ever as an image of 
the Celestial Pole, or .of Annu, the Site of the 
Pillar, in their astronomical mythology. It v;as 
reported by Diodorus that Annu (Heliopolis in the 
Solar Mythos) was accounted by its inhabitants to 
be the oldest city in Egypt, which may have been 
mythically meant, as Annu was also a city or 
station of the Pole, the most ancient foundation in 
the northern heaven, described in the Eschatology 
as a place of a thousand fortresses provisioned for 
eternity. The two pillars of Sut and Horus were 
primal as pillars of the two Poles, thus figured in 
the equatorial regions as the two supports of 
heaven, when it was first divided into two portions. 
South and North, and the pillar or mount of the 
South was given to Sut, and the pillar of the North 


to Horus. The typical two pillars are identified 
with and as Sut and Horus, in the inscription of 
Shabaka from Memphis, in which it is said, " The 
two pillars of the gateway of the House of Ptah 
are Horus and Sut.'' Thus the two pillars at the 
entrance are explained. The great stones built 
into the masonry, and fourfold, set with a 
Triangular Stone, which acted on its pivot for 
providing an entrance, is symbolical of Heaven 
and Earth. The four supports of Heaven, when 
Heaven was represented as a Square, and this 
Earth was also depicted as a Square. The Triangle 
was the sacred Triangle of Sut, Horus, and Shu, 
and represented the original Trinity in its earliest 
form. The passing through this door was symbo- 
lical of passing from Earth to Heaven (see " Signs 
and Symbols of Primordial Man "). It is only 
by the Ritual that you can decipher the meaning 
and unlock the hidden mystery of the past, here 
written in stone. If students will learn Stellar 
Mythos and read the Ritual of Ancient Egypt, 
they will have no doubt left as to the origin and 
meaning of it all ; it is the key of the wisdom 
of the old Egyptic Theopneustics, left for future 
generations to read and learn after a dark and 
degenerate age. I have written " Signs and 
Symbols of Primordial Man " for all those Brothers 
who cannot obtain the Ritual, or, if obtained, 
cannot read it. 


The " Star Sothis " was " The Star of the White 
Spirits," i.e. it was the place where all the white 
spirits came forth after travelling through the 
underworld in the earliest time of the Egyptian 
Mythology, during their totemic sociological state, 
and during the time of Stellar Mythos — before 
Amenta was formed, and therefore pre-Solar. In 
Stellar Mythos it was the Star of Annunciation, it 
heralded the birth of Horus. It was the Morning 
Star of the Egyptian year — 365^^ days — and their 
Great Year — 25,827 years. In Lunar Mythos it 
was the Star of Hathor and her infant son Horus, 
and above all to these oldest observers it was the 
herald of the Inundation, telling them when the 
Nile would come down and fertilize the land, and 
food would be plentiful as a good result of inun- 
dation. Most important and sacred rites were con- 
nected with the rising of this Star, which we 
need not enter into here. But here was within the 
Great Pyramid the time of the commencement of 
the New Year which was the commencement of the 
Precession of the seven Pole Stars {Ursa Minor), 
ending with the seventh Pole Star Hercules, " The 
Man'' — the 6 -f i = 7- The six periods of the 
world's existence, ending with the seventh, taking 
25,827 years to perform. 

To recommence again : To begin another Great 
Year and not to be swallowed up in Eternity when 
time shall be no more. This time of reckoning was 


carried from Egypt by the Stellar Mythos people 
throughout the world, as witnessed by the Glyphs 
on the Ruins at Copan and Palanque and in Peru 
amongst the Aymaras. 

That Sut or Set was first primary god of the 
Egyptians, but was god of the South Pole, or 
Southern Hemisphere, is amply proved and borne 
out by the monuments as well as the Ritual. Set 
or Sut, according to Plutarch, is the Egyptian name 
of Typhon — i.e. Satan of the Christian Cult. On 
the oldest monuments it has been almost invariably 
chiselled out ; we find the names of kings who have 
taken his name, in the same manner as we after- 
wards- find the Horus name. And although the 
legend of the conflict between Horus and Sut is as 
old as the Fourth Dynasty at least, it is, however, 
likewise a proof of Set's position having once been 
very different. It is he whose sign is changed 
for that of Osiris in the letters of the Father of 
the Great Rameses, and two other kings of that 
Dynasty ; it is the same god with his ordinary 
monumental name, Nubi (in Nubian), who is pour- 
ing out life and power over the King. His hiero- 
graphic figure of a giraffe is the Nubian primary 
god Set, or Sut, and with Anup added the trans- 
lation is : "The Lord of the Southern Hemisphere," 
as witnessed in the temples and monuments of 
Kamak and Medinet Habu. The first figure here 
to remark is Horus (Amun-Khem) to whom the 


King is sacrificing and doing homage, and Horus 
is pouring out life and power over the King. The 
fact that we find Sut here as one of the great Gods, 
is a proof that he was considered and looked upon 
at the earliest period of their mythology as at least 
a brother to Horus, and that now Horus was 
primary. The myth had shifted, or changed 
places, the domain of Paradise from the South to 
the North, and the great fight between Horus and 
Sut had not yet come into being. There can be no 
doubt that the primary part of the Mythos was first 
evolved at the Lakes at the head of the Nile when 
the Southern Pole Star was most predominant. 
The different names of Set taken by Kings which 
we find on the oldest monuments, some of which 
have been obliterated and Horus and Osiris sub- 
stituted, prove this, as well as the Pyramids and 
the Ritual. On later monuments we find that the 
great contest had been worked out in their myth- 
ology, and his name is then found Apap (the 
Great Giant, the Great Evil Serpent). In the 
Book of the Ritual he is also called Baba — the 
Beast (ch. xc. 17, 66, 67)— and the struggle of 
Horus and Sut is mentioned in the Ritual (ch. viii. 
17, 9, 25), "The day of battle between Horus 
and Sut." Thus these old forefathers of ours had 
first worked out their Paradise in the Southern 
Hemisphere, and then as they came North, and a 
general amalgamation of the attributes took place, 


it was transferred to the Northern in the type of 
Horus, Lord of the Northern Heavens. The 
above, we think, will explain the reason of the 
building of the "Southern Pyramid." It might 
be of interest to know that there was only one 
known inscribed stone in the Great Pyramid. It 
was at the South. Mr. Don Covington discovered 
this " let-in-stone," clearly incised in the dressed 
surface. It was the full tenth part of an eighteen- 
inch diameter circle ; it had been let into a south 
flank casing stone at a place from which another 
inscription had been chiselled out. This shows that 
the Pyramid was built at the early part of the 
Stellar Mythos with the hieroglyphic for the King 
of the Southern Hemisphere, and when the change 
took place to the Lunar and Solar this was erased 
and the Lunar and Solar sign substituted. 

The Pyramids were built during the Stellar 
Mythos, when the old wise men of Egypt had 
worked out the Astral Mythology, which was then 
carried all over the world. This is witnessed by 
the ancient remains, huge and magnificent buildings 
once which flourished in a high state of civilization, 
and critically proven by the similarity of the build- 
ings, identical Signs and Symbols, and fragments 
of ancient writings, Egyptian hieroglyphics, which 
can only be deciphered now by the wisdom of old 
Egypt. The exodus, which we may class under 
the name of the early Turanians, occurred some 


six hundred thousand years ago, probably much 
more, because we have still the colossal wrecks of 
wonderful empires which stand to-day, pitiful 
monuments to the greatness of the builders and 
the everlasting shame of the men who accomplished 
their ruin.' The Titanic monuments of a forgotten 
past found in Central and South America, and 
some parts of Asia, like the African ruins of 
Zimbabwi, the Great Pyramids, lead most men to 
exclaim, " Who were these old builders? Whence 
came they? By what lost art did they chisel 
those perfect edges and angles? By what means 
did they move these ponderous masses to such 
perfect adjustment, a marvel of delicate and 
beautiful workmanship? Overwhelming in their 
grandeur are those scattered remains." It is only 
by the origin and evolution of man that an 
irrefutable answer can be given. They came from 
Egypt, and their Temples and buildings can always 
be identified. These Stellar people always built 
iconographically. The Solar did not because the 
gods and goddesses which had been represented 
by Zootypes in the Stellar cult were now (in the 
Solar) represented by the Human form. The 
Stellar therefore were prehuman and the Solar 
human depictions. They both built vdth Polygonal- 
shaped stones and Monoliths, but the Stellar works 

' The same thing is being enacted again to-day by the 
German Huns. 


can always be identified by their Iconographic 

The Pyramid is an artificial figure of the mount 
as a means of the ascent to heaven. The Initiate, 
placed at the bottom of the well, would see the 
tubular shaft of the Great Pyramid represented the 
way to heaven as it was imaged in Egyptian 
thought. Resting at the foot he could scan not 
merely the starry vast, but could fix his gaze in 
death upon the heaven of spirits at the summit of 
the mount, the Paradise of Peace, the enclosure 
that was finally configurated in the circle of the 
seven Pole Stars that crossed the passage pointing 
northward, one by one, in the circuit of precession, 
or the heaven of eternity. The Pole Star a 
Draconis was not the only one that would cross 
within range of that great tube. The Great Pyra- 
mid was founded on the Egyptian astronomy, but 
was not built to register the fact that a Draconis 
was the fixed point and polar pivot of all the Stellar 
motion during some 25,827 years in the vast circle 
of precession. The ceilings of the chambers v/ere 
sprinkled with stars to resemble the sky by night 
(Maspero, " Dawn of Civilization "). Astronomi- 
cal tables gave the aspect of the heavens, tenat by 
tenat, throughout the year, so that the Initiates 
" had but to lift their eyes " and see in what part 
of the firmament the course lay night after night. 
Thus he found his future destiny depicted thereon 


and learned to understand the blessings of the 
gods. The chief course was mapped out along the 
river of the Milky Way, as is shown in the Ritual 
by the boat of souls ascending to the Polar 
Paradise. The Initiate (who has been placed in 
the position of a mummy) now is risen up, and 
he is set in motion, prays that he may go up 
to Sekhet-Arru and arrive in Sekhet-Hetep. There 
are three forms of the boat of souls, one in the 
Stellar, one in the Lunar, and one in the Solar 
representation, at three different stages of the 

The Sun, Moon, and seven Stars are frequently 
grouped together on the Assyrian monuments. 
The Chinese call the Sun, Moon, and seven Stars 
the nine Lights of Heaven. The same grouping 
is observed in the nine Pyramids of the Mexicans 
— one for the Sun, one for the Moon, and seven 
small ones for the seven Stars. The three 
Pyramids of Gizeh answer to those of the Sun, 
Moon, and seven Stars elsewhere. The Great 
Pyramid is in itself a sign of seven, comprising, 
as it does, the Square and the Triangle in one 
figure. Its name, Khuti, means also the Seven 
Glorious Ones, as well as Light. It was designed 
by the Har-seshu, or servants of Horus, who 
were the seven Khuti in the Stellar Mythology ; 
they had been the rulers in the celestial hepta- 
nomes before they became the seven servants of 


the Solar God. The seven periods of the Pole 
Stars were also imaged by seven Eyes, in con- 
sequence of an Eye being the figure of a cycle. 
This type is presented in Joshua, in the book of 
Zechariah, in the shape of seven eyes on one 
stone ; " Behold the stone that I have laid before 
Joshua ; upon one stone are seven Eyes." These 
are the seven Eyes of the Lord ; also the seven 
Lamps ; as in Revelation. 

But to write the whole explanation and inter- 
pretation even of these seven would form a book 
of many pages. My object is more to draw atten- 
tion to two books which will give, I think, all the 
explanation and interpretation desired, viz. " The 
Ritual of Ancient Egypt," published by the 
Trustees of the British Museum, which gives a 
facsimile of all the Papyri, as well as the text of 
the same in hieroglyphics, or, if one cannot read 
the Egyptian hieroglyphics, Sir Le Page Renouf's 
translation. The other book is " Signs and 
Symbols of Primordial Man." 

In his second article Mr. F. E. Leith has fallen 
into an error, important to correct, because it is 
" The Ritual of Resurrection," or so-called " Book 
of the Dead," to which I referred, and not to 
Mr. Marsham Adams' book. 

I do not intend to criticize Mr. Leith's vv^ritings, 
because he has evidently spent a great deal 
of time and study in trying to obtain the hidden 


secrets of this Great Building, and his decipher- 
ments, taken as a whole, are not far from correct, 
and the errors contained therein are due to the 
fact that he has not sufficiently studied " The 
Ritual of Resurrection," the past history of the 
world, and the origin and development of the 
human race. 

Another point is that he quotes Dr. Le Plongeon 
as accepting the correctness of the " Book of 
Dazan " for the explanation of the Pyramids and 
Temples of the Maya. Now, Dr. Le Plongeon 
and his wife, Alice Le Plongeon, stayed with me 
as my guests for a considerable time during the 
writing of his works, and moreover he asked me to 
read all his manuscripts before they were published. 
This I did, and pointed out to him that he had 
not differentiated between the Stellar and Solar 
Temples, and had not taken into account any of 
the previous Totemic people — which he acknow- 
ledged he did not understand. But no one that 
I know, or ever heard of before, took him as an 
authority upon the above subject, though it is an 
actual fact that he lived amongst the Mayas for 
some time and discovered several ancient remains. 
His deductions were, nevertheless, quite erroneous. 
In the first place, he did not know the Egyptian 
language, or even Hindoo, or Zend ; and although 
he tried to compare the Egyptian Hieroglyphic 
Alphabet and Ideographs with the Maya, he could 


not, and did not, read the Egyptian correctly. 
He accomplished great work by discovering many 
ruins of Temples, etc., and obtained photographs 
of the same, and deciphered the Maya characters 
thereon. There it ended. 

Mr. Leigh quotes Herodotus, but Herodotus 
only lived 484-424 B.C., and, moreover, was 
ignorant of the Egyptian language, and had to 
depend upon interpreters as to what was told him 
by the Egyptian Priests. He, however, made an 
important statement connected with the Pyramid, 
and that was : " That Kufu {who was the sup- 
posed builder of the Pyramid) lived and reigned 
in Egypt during the Solar Mythos, but that Kufu 
was not the builder.'" Now we know, for a fact, 
that the recent discoveries at Abydos prove that 
this cult (Solar) was at its zenith there twenty 
thousand to thirty thousand years ago, and at Helio- 
polis, before that, more than eighteen thousand 
years before the time of Moses. Now as regards 
the time, and who were the builders of the Pyramid, 
we have a very definite fact by the greatest and 
oldest Egyptian historian, Manetho, who was a 
high priest and kept " The Records of Egypt." 
His statement is that the Great Pyramid was built 
at the end of the reign of " The Gods and the 
Heroes " — that is, at the time when their Totemic 
Sociology had arrived by evolution in the Stellar 
Mythos — " and it was built by the followers of 


Horus." Moreover, he states that " the Gods and 
Heroes " were not human, nor ever had been 
human. The followers of Horus were the Stellar 
Mythos people in the same sense as Christians 
are the followers of Christ. 

I have proved (and this proof has now been 
accepted by the greatest anthropologists and ethno- 
logists) that the human race sprang from Africa, 
and not Asia. It was there in old Africa that 
man began to develop his faculties and spread 
all over the world, taking with him, at various 
epochs, all the knowledge at the time of the exodus 
with which he left. The first were the Pygmies, 
with no Totemic ceremonies, but with a belief 
in a Great Spirit and a Spiritual life hereafter, 
and with a propitiation of elemental powers. The 
second were the Nilotic Negroes, with Totemic 
ceremonies, and a later exodus of these, when the 
elemental powers became divinized. Then the 
Stellar Mythos people, in at least two if not three 
different stages of evolution. After these the Lunar 
and then the Solar people, and finally the Christian 
doctrine was evolved, and is now spreading and 
replacing all previous cults. 

But the Stellar Mythos people, whose cult lasted 
three hundred thousand years at least, as witnessed 
and proved by the Ritual, " They covered up my 
eye after them with bushes (or hairy net) twice, 
for ten periods " (a period being one Great Year, 


25,827 years, or one revolution of the Little Bear 
or precession of the Pole Stars), had reached the 
highest stage of evolution eschatologically and 
astronomically, which stage has never been sur- 
passed ; they were the greatest of all. It was these 
people who built the Great Pyramids in Egypt, 
Central and South America, and other parts of the 
world where we now find the remains, and had then 
finally developed the whole of the present eschato- 
logy. Mr. Leith is wrong in trying to bring a 
Biblical proof for the whole of his contention. 
It cannot be done as an exoteric rendering. Can 
he or any one else bring forward any proof of 
the history? No ; for there was no history as an 
exoteric rendering. The oldest authorities that 
we have, and all their writings which are extant, 
prove this. And here let me state also that Mr. 
Leith is absolutely wrong in attributing " The 
Dazan " as the oldest book in the world. " The 
Ritual of the Resurrection of the Egyptians " is 
the oldest. But the Biblical wisdom, as an esoteric 
rendering, or, rather, representation of the Ritual 
of Ancient Egypt, is true, and all can be read and 
understood. Geology, and the remains of skeletons 
of the human found in various places, prove that 
man has existed here on this earth at least one 
million years. A skeleton of a man found in a coal 
bed in America, and one found in Germany 87 feet 
below the surface, the bed of which was formed by 



running water, as well as the Sussex human found 
in this country, is sufficient proof that Biblical 
dates cannot be taken as correct. 

The Great Pyramid was built during the Stellar 
Mythos. In it is portrayed the whole architecture 
of the heavens, courses and times of the heavenly 
bodies, the seasons of the year, days of the year 
and Great Year, time measurements and distance 
of the sun and moon and their time of revolution, 
as well as the Pole Stars. The whole of their 
eschatology is there written for all those who can 
read, and for a witness from all time since it was 
built, when the man-god Horus was slain and rose 
again as Amsu in spirit form, until all the world 
will be re-united again under one divine brother- 

I have written this in a broad sense, as I feel 
it will be taken in a more fraternal spirit 
than if I had taken each of the points put forward, 
and disproved many by historical records of the 
past. I think Mr. Leith's articles very interesting, 
and most of his structural ideas regarding the 
Pyramid are quite correct ; this I know from 
personal visits. But for the rest — the authorities 
he quotes neither knew the Egyptian language nor 
the Zend, which was, and is that which followed 
the Ancient Egyptian, not the hieroglyphic, the 
oldest, but the hieratic. The Zend is the oldest 
extant sacred writings in Asia, as the sacred books 


exist amongst some of the priests in India and 
elsewhere. Capt. Charles Serres, many years ago, 
brought me back one of these " sacred Bibles " 
from the Burmah priests ; it was written in the old 
Zend on flattened pieces of bamboo, about two feet 
long and three inches wide. The whole work is a 
copy of some parts of the Ritual of Egypt some- 
what perverted. I am of the same opinion as 
Mr. Leith, that in future years — at the time of the 
next glacial epoch — Egypt will be the centre of 
civilization again, and all those lands and people 
of the Sumarians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, 
Greeks, and Romans, which nations rose and fell 
in the above order, will rise again and a fraternal 
bond will unite them with their " old mother 
home." But it will not be until these islands 
are covered with glacial ice and snow, when 
the whole Northern human race is driven South 
again, as far as latitude 56 (as it had been many 
times before). Then, after the glacial epoch has 
passed away, the remains of the present humans, 
and their works, will be rediscovered by a future 
generation. What Great Masonic Temple will be 
left to the world? The first and greatest of all— 
The Great Pyramid of Egypt. 



The Rev. Jacob E. V^arren, in an article on the 
above subject, asks for the origin of the " Divine 
Name " which the Hebrew text gives as Yhvh, 
and what we can do to discover the lost treasure? 
The answer is simple — study this question : Where 
did the Hebrews obtain it from? 

The origin of the divine name above is from the 

Fig. i8. Fig. 19. 

Egyptian Hu (Fig. 18) and lu (Fig. 19), one 
of the names of Horus. This is the name " for 
the word," although there is still another secret 
name only known to a few which I am not per- 
mitted to divulge ; but the meaning of the words 
in each case is identical. The Hebrews obtained 
all their knowledge from the Egyptians, and to 


understand the Volume of the Sacred Law it must 
be read as an esoteric representation, and not an 
exoteric rendering. Most people do the latter, 
which is terribly misleading for those who are igno- 
rant of the ancient Egyptian wisdom. Hu = Iu, 
signifies in Egyptian The Lord of the Heavens 
and the Earth — ruler of the destiny of the world. 
The original word was written Hu, then lu, lau, 
lahe, as the son of Hu, which two were one. 

In later times the letter I was changed into Y, 
which students would do well to bear in mind in 
trying to decipher names as written at the present 
day. The letter Y did not exist until many 
thousands of years after the letter I had been 
formed. Another form for the name was Heru- 
Khuti= Light of the World. 

The Jews used the word I ah — Jehovah ; 
Phoenicians, lao ; Hebrew, lah ; Assyrian, lau ; 
Egyptian-gnostic, leou ; Polynesian, I ho -1 ho ; 
Dyak, Yavuah or laouh ; Nicobar Islands, Eewu ; 
Mexican, Ao ; Toda, Au ; Hungarian, lao ; Manx, 
lee ; Cornish, lau ; Welsh, lau ; Chaldean, lao- 
Heptaktes ; Greek, la and le. The Jews were 
originally the followers of Aiu or lu or lau. The 
worshippers of lao in Phoenicia, of lau in Assyria, 
of lao in Syria, lau and Hu in Britain, la or lu 
in Greece, Iho-Iho in Polynesia, lau in America, 
were each and all of them " Jews," in a sense, but 
the sense was religious, not originally ethnical. It 


was part of the Solar doctrines or Eschatology of 
the Egyptians. The Dyaks of Borneo did not 
obtain their Yavaah from the Hebrew Jehovah, 
but from the origin of both. 

The change in Israel from the worship of El 
Shaddai to the worship of Ihuh (^Hu or lu in 
Egypt), from the Eloistic to the Jehovistic God, 
corresponds to the change from the Stellar to the 
Solar doctrines in the Eschatology of the Egyptians, 
which can be seen and proved in the Volume of 
the Sacred Law — in the book of i Chronicles xii. 
5, in which we find that Baal-Jah, as divinity, 
supplied a personal name. Thus the Baal is Jah, 
who is one of the Baalim, the Primary or 
Superior one of the seven Stellar attributes. The 
one God in Israel was made known to Moses by 
the two names of Ihuh and lah. In the Egyptian 
the one God in the earliest Solar form was Turn — 
(the earliest form of Atum-Ra) — he was Huhi, 
the eternal, in the character of God the Father, 
and lu or Tern, in the character of God the Son, 
which two were one. 

Gesenius derives the name Ihuh, or later Yhuh, 
from the root Huh, which root does not exist in 
Hebrew, but it does exist in Egyptian. Huh or 
Heh signifies ever, everlastingness, eternity, the 
eternal, and was one of the titles associated or 
names of Horus. The names changed from Turn, 
Ptah, Atum-Ra, Osiris, as Neb-Hui, the Ever- 


lasting Lord, or Superior One ; Self-existing and 
Eternal God, which each of the above represented 
in turn, as one divine dynasty succeeded another 
in the Egyptian Religion. 

Moreover, Bela Baal was El Shaddai of the 
Phoenicians, or was another name for him, and 
when they changed from the Stellar (represented 
by Sut-Anup) to Horus he was no longer to be 
considered the one God (see Exodus xxxiv. 13). 
" Thou shalt call me Ishi, and shalt call me no 
more Baali " (Hosea ii. i 6), and therefore to have 
the Hebrew character of El Shaddai (or Phoenician 
rather) as the Father, and Hu — lu, lau, Ishi, Ihu, 
etc., as his Son, as is represented on our Cross of 
the 18°, is quite wrong ; it has no meaning, and 
no explanation could be given that would be correct 
with the Hebrew characters on the symbol as it is 
now ; but if these were changed to the Egyptian 
(Fig. 18), or the equivalent, it would be correct, 
would correspond, and have the same meaning 
as Yhuh. 

El Shaddai was not " a form of Father " to Hu 
or lu in any way. He was the Primary God 
situated at the Southern Pole, or hemisphere, for 
upwards of fifty-one thousand years, and then he 
was deposed in favour of Horus, the God of the 
Northern Horizon. This is proved by the two 
Great Pyramids of Ghizeh, one built for Sut and 
the other for Horus ; their names are inscribed 


thereon ; it is clearly mentioned several times in 
the Egyptian Ritual. All the attributes hitherto 
associated with Set of the South were appropriated 
and given to Horus of the North, and this Cult 
lasted at least three hundred thousand years. 

This Deity as the God of Israel was Jashal-El ; 
the God of Jashar-Ieshurun or Baali ; and the 
other forms of the name, El-EIoun, Edoni 
(Phoenician) at first, then changing, with the 
changing of the Stellar to the Solar Cult or 
Eschatology of Egypt. This gives the answer to 
the question. 

The jealousies of the different sects of Chris- 
tianity have led to a display of bitterness and 
hatred which have been the means of aUenating 
thousands who beUeve that brotherly love and 
charity should be the principles of Christianity. 
Yet all these various denominations work under the 
banner of Christianity. The Church must obliterate 
its schisms, and if the Brotherhood of Freemasonry 
helps it to do so, then well indeed will it be. One 
looks back with horror to the days not long passed 
when men were burnt and tortured to the honour 
and glory of God under the name of Christianity. 
The Church must get rid and free itself from its 
despotism, its lack of that great virtue. Charity, 
and its badly-concealed hatred of all who have 
differed from its dogmas. 

Until this has been really accomplished it will 


be quite vain to expect churches to imitate the 
examples of our Lodges and " be penetrated 
through and through " with our great principles. 
Amongst the Ancient World the principles and 
tenets of our Brotherhood, the highest principles 
of Morality, Charity, Truth, and Justice, were prac- 
tised by all, over three hundred thousand years 
ago, and such perfection was reached that our 
old Brothers would blush with shame to see us 
at the present time. 

I7I7— I9I7 


It is a great pity we have so few sti ^ents in 
Freemasonry who take an interest in i e real 
history of our Brotherhood ; and still more to 
be deplored that there is no encouragement for 
those that do ; but if Masons would only search 
and read the records of the past they would never 
have fallen into the error and published the theory 
that we were once operative masons: and when 
I read in The Freemason, July 22, 191 1, "The 
celebration in 1 9 1 7 of the two-hundredth anni- 
versary of Speculative Masonry which succeeded 
operative masonry in 17 17," it pained me to feel 
that this want of knowledge throughout the 
Universal Masonic Fraternity is one of the causes 
why some have wandered from the Cradle of their 

No doubt this idea was taken from Krause, who 

has endeavoured to prove that Masonry origi- 



nated in the associations of operative masons 
that in the Middle Ages travelled through Europe. 
At best these " operatives " could only be carriers, 
or a connecting link of the Middle Ages and the 
Mysteries of the Ancient Egyptians. Likewise 
w^ere the Greeks, who obtained their knowledge 
partly through the Pelasgians and Samothracia, 
and partly through a few of the best-informed 
Greeks, who went to Egypt and were initiated there 
into the lesser Mysteries by the Egyptian Priests. 

Mr. Harold Bayley, in his "A New Light on 
the Renaissance," has shown and proved, by the 
various groups of signs and symbols which he has 
brought together, how, after the downfall of the 
Egyptian Empire, these sacred Egyptian signs and 
symbols were in one way brought on by the early 
Christians, and shown how some were converted 
into our present ones, and how a remnant of these 
men who possessed and clung to the true doctrines 
survived, and what they had to endure from the 
bigoted and ignorant early Roman Priests, who, 
ignorant of the true Eschatology, tried to, and did 
to a great extent for some time, usurp the temporal 
power by destroying the spiritual ideas ; however, 
evolution has always, and still continues, its course 
to a higher standard. But we do not need even 
" these carriers " in England for the origin of our 
Brotherhood here. 

It is impossible to say if it took the form of 


" Craft Masonry " first in England or Scotland. 
The word Freemason is met with in MS. as far 
back as a.d. 1376. The oldest Lodge record is 
that of the Aitcheson Lodge, date 1598 ; that is 
one year older than No. i Lodge of Edinburgh, 

The Druids were first persecuted and driven 
to secret meetings in England, as may be seen 
from Canute's edict ; but that is immaterial, and 
I only mention it because the Sitch people 
claim to be " the oldest Masons." Ce ainly some 
of the " carriers " came to Scotlai.d, as is 
proved by research, but it is questionable if they 
brought over any fresh or newer developments 
in the Egyptian Eschatology — this they already 
found here. Bro. Gould, to whom we are much 
indebted for the beautiful work he has given to 
the Brotherhood, dealing with the modern and 
historic aspect of Freemasonry from a later date, 
I beUeve differs somewhat in his views from mine, 
but I have not the slightest doubt, if he could read 
the old dead and primary written languages, he 
would modify his opinion. 

If Masonry has not its origin in the Sacred 
Mysteries of the Ancient Egyptians, how could 
these rites and ceremonies, signs and symbols, have 
found their way into it? These sacred mysteries 
were the same amongst the Priests of the Mayas 
in Central America and Peru in South America. 


The passwords for the various degrees are the 
same, or have the same meaning ; the signs and 
symbols are the same ; and the Rituals are 
identical ; which can be proved by any Brother 
who will take the trouble to learn to read the 
old hieroglyphic languages. I shall be glad, for 
the sake of the Brotherhood generally, when the 
intellectual aspects of Masonry have advanced many 
degrees beyond what they are now ; but this will, 
and can only, be done by persistent individual 
labour and effort, for the good of the Brother- 
hood generally, with no reward except the grati- 
tude we shall receive from our children's children 
when our spirit has Joined the Grand Lodge Above. 



A Lecture delivered before the Essex Masters' Lodge, No. 3256, at 
the Great Eastern Hotel, London, E.C., on the 1st April, 1912. 

For the last twenty years it has been one of 
my objects in life to give Brothers information 
and to assist in advancing Freemasonry to that 
position it occupied at least three hundred thousand 
years ago — and towards which we are now fast 
approaching. It was difficult for me to choose 
which particular subject would be most interesting 
to you, and I took my key from your Wi.M.'s 
letter saying that " you did not initiate," and 
therefore presumed you were students of Free- 

Recent history has been so ably debated and 
written upon by many other students of Free- 
masonry that they have practically exhausted the 
subject. At this stage it is as if the students 
stood on the edge of the sea— let us say at Dover : 
some would stand wondering what was on the 



opposite side of the water, wishing to cross and 
see, but, having no boats and being unable to 
swim, would be brought to a standstill ; others 
would say that there was nothing across the water, 
while yet again some few, having caught sight 
of the white cliffs of France, would feel certain 
that there must be a great land there, but lack 
the key which would transport them thither. It 
is the same with Freemasonry, the Recent History 
being separated from the mysteries of the past 
by a gulf. How, then, is one to unlock these 

By one way only, and that is to learn to read the 
old Hieroglyphic writings of Egypt, and the Glyphs 
of the old Stellar Mythos people (or a translation), 
who worked out the whole of the Eschatology and 
left records of the same written in stone and on 
Papyri — in Signs and Symbols and in Sign 
Language, and if you do not read these you can 
never obtain that which many of you are striving 
to understand. From the downfall of the old 
Egyptian Empire, five thousand years ago, or more, 
up to the last few hundred years, we have passed 
through a dark and degenerate age. Then our 
altars were thrown down, our Brotherhood scattered 
over the face of the earth, and some of our 
secrets were lost to many. But there were 
remnants of the Brotherhood who went forth from 
Egypt into various parts of the world, carrying 


the true doctrines and secrets with them, some 
one part, some another. 

Also there were the Druids, the old High Priests 
of Egypt, the Solar Mythos people, i.e. those who 
reckoned time by the Sun's revolutions, who were 
initiated up to the ;^^°, practising all their rites and 
ceremonies in France, in Central America, and in 
these islands, until the edict of Canute scattered 
them here, and forced them to meet in secret places 
— on the highest hill, or in the lowest vale, or 
any other secret place, the better to guard against 
cowans and enemies. Also in America their altars 
were thrown down, their Blazing Star was eclipsed. 
All was given over to fire and sword. The remains 
of their greatness still exist, to the everlasting 
shame of their destroyers. But if you look for 
any regular written history of the Order, you will 
not find it. There are no records left to us — 
but you may take it that from that time the so- 
called Lodges in England and Scotland were 
formed by a scattered few, who, to avoid the 
terrors of the law, and to keep their religious 
rites and ceremonies pure and unsullied, as they 
had received them from the parent source — old 
Egypt — met in secret places and had resort to 
private meetings. This, therefore, was one original 
source. There were no records left, in these 
islands, any more than there will be after another 
twenty thousand years have passed, or less. 


The Glacial Epoch occurs once in every 25,827 
years, during part of which period the whole of the 
Northern Hemisphere is frozen and covered with 
ice and snow, down as far as the latitude of the 
south of France. This great City of London and 
others will be ground to pieces and buried under- 
neath the Great Ice Sheet ; everything will be 
destroyed, as it has been many times ; only remains 
will be re-discovered by our future Brothers when 
they come North again, and who shall say how 
much or how little evidence will they then find 
of. our present institutions and teachings? 

As regards the Roman College of Artificers, 
Krause, in his work, endeavoured to prove that 
Masonry originated in the associations of operative 
Masons. These associations may have sprung from 
the building corporations of the Romans. The 
initiates of the Architectural Colleges of the 
Romans did not, however, call themselves 
" Brothers " ; they were styled Collega or 
Incorporatus. The Colleges held " Lodges " 
wherever they established themselves, had signs, 
symbols, tokens, and passwords, which they had 
learned and received from the Chaldean magicians, 
who flocked to Rome at the beginning of the 
Christian era. These Chaldean priests, neverthe- 
less, were of inferior order, who were initiated 
into part of the lesser mysteries of the Egyptians 
only, so that at best these could only be carriers, 



or a connecting link in the Middle Ages with the 
Mysteries of the Ancients. 

The " working or operative Masons " — and 
there are still many of these in existence — ^who 
use some of the primary signs and symbols of 
which we, as so-called " Speculative Masons," have 
substituted the modern forms, have a tradition that 
they came from the Turanians. Well, that is quite 
right and true. Some of the signs and symbols 
which they use are of a different form from ours, 
but the esoteric representation of each is the same 
— as, for instance, the Swastika (Tau and Cross), 
the meaning and explanation of which are all 
identical. These are innovations obtained from 
the Solar Cult people, and speaking truly did not 
belong originally to the operative. But they also 
say that the Egyptians came from the Turanians 
— which is quite wrong. These Chaldean magicians 
were Turanians, old Stellar Mythos people, who 
originally came out of or left Egypt at the end of 
their Totemic Sociology ; remnants of them are 
still found in various parts of the world, which 
they spread over, except Australia, Tasmania, 
Oceania, and extreme parts of South America. 
You will find positive proof of Egypt being the 
" home of man," from which all have taken their 
origin, in my " Origin and Evolution of Primitive 

By Stellar Mythos people I mean those who first 


reckoned and kept time, and they did so by the 
observation of the Precession of the Pole Stars — 
Ursa Minor, or the Little Bear. They did not 
reckon by the year, except the one great year of 
25,827 years ; this they divided into periods, a 
period being roughly three thousand years — i.e. 
the changing of the Pole Star. This Stellar 
period lasted over three hundred thousand years ; 
after which time was reckoned by the moon's revo- 
lutions, that was Lunar Mythos, and after that it 
was Solar, time being reckoned by the sun's 
revolutions, etc. 

These Turanians had the Lesser Mysteries — 
the seven Prima -y Mysteries, and were astro - 

The Greater Mysteries were ten in number, and 
were Eschatological and founded on the Mystery 
of the Cross. This Mystery was the Great 
Mystery of Amenta, evolved at the foundation of 
the Solar Cult, over thirty thousand years ago. 
In the Solar Cult the two Poles I. 1. North and 
South were converted into -|- in Amenta. Hence 
the reason that the Operative Masons and we 
Speculative Masons have only the Lesser Mysteries, 
up to the end of the seven, while in the so-called 
" Higher Degrees " they have some parts of the 
ten Greater Mysteries, and founded on the Cross 
established in Amenta. Our primary Seven 
Degrees (so called) date back to the early 


Stellar- Astro -Mythology, whilst the " Higher De- 
grees " are Eschatological and date back to the 
commencement of the Solar Cult only. 

Then as far as our Sacred Volume is concerned, 
you must remember that not until Luther's time 
did we have, speaking generally, any of these 
exoteric writings to study, except a few extracts 
given out by the Roman priests, and even then 
the esoteric representations were not known, and 
it is only during the last few hundred years that 
we have kept written records of anything. 

One might say that for five thousand years there 
was no literature left us that we could read and 
properly understand. The Greeks, who have been 
much over-estimated, never understood the Escha- 
tology, and, in their ignorance, perverted all that 
had been told them ; and so it was not until a 
few years ago that the discovery was made which 
gave us the key to read the writings and to find 
the true history of the past. The finding of various 
Papyri with sacred writings, which we can now 
read, proves what all our forms and cerem.onies 
meant, and from whence they came. 

Here written on Papyri, on stones, and even on 
the Great Pyramid itself, is our Ritual, with all 
passwords, signs and symbols, and the meaning 
of the same, and I, having discovered the key to 
read the Central American Glyphs, which I have 
now given to the rest of the world, found that 


these writings and their Eschatology were copies 
of the Egyptian originals. 

Freemasonry, taken as a whole, i.e. in all its 
degrees from first to thirty-third, is the Ritual of 
Ancient Egypt, or their Eschatology, i.e. the 
doctrine of final things, performed dramatically 
and symbolically, the more to impress it upon 
the initiates. 

There are written records left in this old 
language, which I have read, and brought forward 
in my books, proving that this doctrine was extant 
and perfect, at least as long as three hundred 
thousand years ago. It teaches you the life you 
should lead here on earth to gain everlasting hap- 
piness. It portrays all the dangers and difficulties 
the Corpus has to pass through in this life, and 
the Manes in the next, to gain that glorious here- 
after we are all striving to obtain. 

Our present Ritual, Lodges, Passwords, etc., are 
not all identically the same as of old ; we have 
reconstructed at various times the secrets and parts 
of the Ritual as we have found them, and therefore 
there are necessarily innovations from the first to 
the thirty-third. Our MM. Lodge is not correct 
in detail, but our R.A. Chapter is perfectly 
correct, and is a true copy of the Ancient Lodges, 
or Temples, of which we find the remnants, dating 
three hundred thousand years back, i.e. as nearly 
as possible considering time and evolution. The 


1 8° Lodge is another that is nearly perfect, and 
was part of, or an attachment to, the first Temple 
or Lodge, their Temples consisting of three 
different rooms, or buildings, attached to one 
another and connected by doors and passages. 

The three cubes, each one surmounting the other, 
formed one central pedestal, on top of which rested 
a circle of gold and a triangle — at the corners of 
this triangle were the names, in symbols, of the 
three names on the treble cube — namely, Horus, 
Set, and Shu, the first and Primary Trinity, and 
the three Grand Originals. Horus was typified 
and portrayed as the God of the North, Set as 
God of the South, and Shu as God of the Equinox. 
The triangle was sacred on account of its repre- 
senting Heaven. The Primary Triangle originally 
represented Set, but when Horus took the place and 
attributes of Set, he became God of the Celestial 
North. Their two symbols were afterwards blended 
as Fig. 23. This form >vas sometimes doubled, as 
Fig. 20, and was then the most sacred sign amongst 
the old Brotherhood ; an ideograph 
represented their " Khui Land," or 

" The Land of the Spirits," and we 
Fig. 20. . f ' 

find it portrayed as such all over the 

world, where the old Brothers had lived. This 

was, in Primary form, surrounded by four serpents 

or Uraei, as guardians of the same (Fig. 21) ; 

later it was three Triangles, doubled as above. 


surrounded with concentric circles (Fig. 22). We 
have it, as you know, surrounded with one circle. 
I have in my possession what I believe to be the 
oldest Scarab in the world with this sign on it, 
at one time the jewel of the High Priest. It 
represents the two Triangles guarded by four 
Uraei in front of the Scarab, and on the back an 
Island in a Lake, the most sacred sign that ever 
existed in our Brotherhood, and must date back 
to the time of the High Priest of the seventeenth 
nome of Upper Egypt at the time of Totemic 

Fig. 21. 

Fig. 22. 

Fig. 23. 

Sociology. Because the " Khui Land " was " the 
Land of the Spirits," i.e. Heaven, and was de- 
picted as situated at the Pole Star North, i.e. this 
Northern Land Paradise, surrounded by the waters 
of space, and they portrayed and represented the 
terrestrial by building a sacred temple on an island 
in a lake. Hence the reason we find the two 
ideographs together, as in Fig. 23, one repre- 
senting the Celestial and the other the Terrestrial. 
You may ask, why two triangles? It represents 
symbolically — or is an ideograph of — Heaven in 


two divisions, North and South, which was the 
primary heaven, being afterwards again divided 
into East and West, giving us the four quarters. 

I do not know the password for the Grand 
Masters in England, but I do know the original 
sacred password of Old Egypt's Highest Priests. 
This word, which is given with and accompanies the 
above symbol, must only be communicated to, or 
spoken between, two Grand Masters, and never 
given to any one below that rank ; and I shall 
be pleased to restore the genuine sign, symbol, 
and passwords to any two Grand Masters if they so 

You will observe these are the two Triangles of 
Set and Horus. 

The upper one, or North, is an ideograph for 

The lower one, or South, that for Set. 

The Heavens were first divided into two 
divisions. North and South, at the time of their 
Totemic Sociology — before the Stellar Cult — at the 
very earliest time of their Astro-Mythology. 

The old Egyptians' custom was this : As they 
mapped out the Heavens Celestially, so they de- 
picted the same Terrestrially in old Egypt. The 
North and South Pole Stars portrayed in the 
earliest form was by two Poles or two Columns, 
and this was an earlier phase than by the triangle. 
Amongst the Totemic people of the present day it 


is still used in their sacred ceremonies. One pole 
or column is placed North, and is called 
Nurtunga, the other is placed South, and its 
name is Warringa. As evolution took place and 
Temples were built, these two columns were 
brought on and placed at the entrance of all their 
Temples, in whatever land they erected a Temple. 
Their names all through the Stellar and Solar 
Mythos were " Horus and Set," and represented 
symbolically the God of the North and the God 
of the South. You will find proof of this in 
several chapters of the Ritual. 

As evolution still progressed and when they had 
perfected their Eschatology, the two columns still 
continued to be placed at the entrance of their 
Temples, only their names were changed to Tatt 
and Tattu, and all Temples throughout the world 
had these down to the time of the commencement 
of the Christian cult. As you know, at the 
entrance of our Temples we have the two columns ; 
J and B are the names we use, but remember the 
oldest names were Nurtunga and Warringa, and 
that the later names, Tatt, which, in Egyptian, 
means " In strength," and Tattu, which means, in 
Egyptian, " To establish," denoting in Egyptian 
the place of establishing for ever, were those from 
which we copied them. So we learn how they 
brought on and made use of the earliest originals, 
and these have been handed down and made use 


of from generation to generation to the present 
time ; the names changing, but not the esoteric 

The originals on the top of the two columns 
(see Fig. 15) were four lines, or cross sticks, i.e. 
heaven and earth, as a square, represented at the 
present day by the celestial and terrestrial globes. 
The Egyptians at this period, not understanding 
perspective, could only draw on the flat, and so 
had to represent the ideas and beliefs as shown. 
Later, they knew that the Earth was not square, 
nor yet flat, but its true form. 

The Brothers were not called Freemasons then, 
but the operatives were called Craftsmen and Com- 
panions, as witnessed in Ritual, Ch. Ixxx. The 
term Companion dates back as far as Totemic 
Sociology, over three hundred thousand years ago. 
The Priests of these were the first originals of 
our Brotherhood. The Companions in Egypt were 
a special and privileged body of Brothers who 
occupied the seventeenth nome of Upper Egypt, 
and these — and these alone — had certain special 
duties to perform connected with the Temples. The 
Chief of the Nome was the Head or High Priest, 
and he was the first original of our Grand Master. 
The Egyptian title was Ura-herp-Kem ; later a 
higher degree was formed, when his title was 
" The Most Illustrious," which means Master of 
Masters (Ritual, Ch. xiv.). I note for your atten- 


tion the Chapters in the Ritual where can ,be 
found the origin and explanation for : 

The desire for light Ch. 9. 

First Penal Sign Ch. 90. 

Heart torn out by fingers... Ch. 27 & 28. 
Body burnt to ashes, etc — Ch. 86. 
Given bread to the hungry Ch. 125. 
Left foot first — the Papyrus of Nesi-Amsu. 

These Sacred Mysteries were the same amongst 
the priests of the Mayas, and in Central and 
South America, the Druids, and the priests of 
Egypt, and the same as we practise. The simi- 
larity of the rites practised in the initiation and 
other ceremonies, the identity of the signs, symbols, 
and tokens, proves that all these had been com- 
municated from one to another, from one centre 
of origin. Only in Old Egypt can we find that 
origin ; it is all there. 

And although in the so-called Higher Degrees 
we have professedly Christian doctrines, yet any 
Brother who will look at the reproduction (Fig. i ) 
- 1 have given of a picture, taken from an old Stellar 
Mythos Temple, will see how little different is 
the innovation at the present day. The so-called 
Christian Cult which is the supposed latest in evolu- 
tion is, in fact, the oldest. What I mean by 
this is that the whole of the Christian doctrines 
were the same as the original Stellar if you give 


it the esoteric rendering. The same tale of the 
Son of God coming on earth, being crucified, and 
rising again is at least a million years old, and 
all the different cults are one and the same 
rendered esoterically. The dates of the V.S.L. 
are wrong, but the tale is true. 

If you wish to make progress as students of 
Freemasonry you cannot ignore the history of the 
evolution of the human race. It is only by learn- 
ing this that you can gain that light which some, 
I know, are striving to obtain. If you ignore 
the history of the past you will still remain at the 
seashore at Dover looking across the water, but 
you will find other Brothers, in other countries, 
racing across in steam-launches, or monoplanes, to 
be the first to unite the broken ends of that cable- 
tow which parted at the downfall of the old 
Egyptian Empire. These ends are in your hands, 
and in studying Freemasonry you must also study 
the origin and evolution of the human race. The 
one is blended and evolved with the other, and 
except you take the two together you will never 
obtain the true gnosis. 

There are many Freemasons who will scorn 
these words, but they will do so from ignorance. 
In fifty years' time these truths will be acknow- 
ledged as facts, because some of you will con- 
tinue your studies, and will learn to read the 
history of the past as I have, and it is only by 


doing so that you can arrive at the Truth, the 
Way, and the Light, 

To those who are interested let me refer them 
to " Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man " and 
" The Origin and Evolution of Primitive Man," 
two works I have written for my Brother Masons 
throughout the world, as well as many other 
articles in Masonic journals, which will give you 
more information on this subject, and guide you 
into the true road of knowledge. I have written 
them not for myself, but for Brothers throughout 
the world, so that they may learn to know what 
Freemasonry is — the origin, the truth, the real 
meaning of it. It will elevate you then, for each 
sicp which brings us back to our original is a 
step of evolution towards the natural laws which 
the Divine Creator has made. And so long as 
we are true to our tenets and doctrines, believing 
in the immutable laws of T.G.G. of the U., and 
ever acknowledge Him as the Divine Creator 
of aU things, so long shall we continue to flourish. 
We shall not have our altars thrown down again 
and be scattered over the face of the earth, as 
the Egyptians were on account of their falling 
away from the true doctrines, as the records of the 
past prove. 'ill 

Evolution will not cease ; if one country degene- 
rates and falls away, another country will arise 
and go forward as a higher type. And so with 


our Brotherhood, which is now approaching a 
higher type of evolution rapidly, and will continue 
to progress in a purer form. A higher, nobler, 
and more exalted conception will take the place 
of Freemasonry that was here fifty years ago. If 
this country is broken up, and degeneration ensues, 
or is absorbed into another nation, as others have 
been before it, our Brotherhood will not fall with 
it. It will be as it was once before — the Universal 
religion and Brotherhood of the world. Therefore 
ever continue to seek after until you find the true 
knowledge of the past, that will give you know- 
ledge for the future, and enable you to exemplify, 
by your every action, word, and thought, the most 
exalted tenets of our Brotherhood, and by so doing, 
and relying on the promises of the Most High, 
the one Divine Creator of all things, we shall meet 
again in that Grand Lodge above, where the reward 
is Everlasting Life and Happiness. 



A Lecture delivered before the Dorset Masters Lodge No. 3366, at 
the Masonic Hall, Dorchester, on the 12th June, 1912. 

As a Masonic student who has studied the history 
of the past ages more than, I believe, any other 
Mason living, I felt it would not only be a pleasure 
but a duty to try and assist in that great work for 
which this Lodge was founded. The difficulty on 
such an occasion as this is in selecting that subject, 
or subjects, which would be the most interesting 
and instructive, and as there are so many 
Brothers who write and lecture on the modern 
aspect of Freemasonry, I have thought it wiser 
to try and give a little more light upon the history 
of the past, so that you may be able to penetrate 
through that gloom of the darker ages, and l)e 
better enabled to appreciate what Freemasonry 
really is, in all its symbolisms, and to understand 
some of the workings of the Divine Creator's laws 
of evolution, and how we Freemasons are the 


privileged few who possess the originals in their 
true forms. 

The first question, then, is : What is Free- 

and. From whence did we derive our Signs, 
Symbols, and Rituals? 

3rd. What was the original meaning of our 
present interpretation and substituted 

Freemasonry in all its degrees, from the first to 
the thirty-third, is the old Eschatology of the 
Egyptians — or the doctrine of final things. We 
are divided at the present time into two classes 
— I might say three, if I include the " Operative 
Brothers." One class comprises the Master Mason, 
Mark Mason, and R.A.C., working the seven 
degrees of the old Stellar Mythos people, called 
the Lesser Mysteries — the seven mysteries worked 
out during the time they perfected their Astro- 

The second class, known as the higher degrees, 
under the Supreme Council, have part of, and 
work part of, the ten degrees of the Solar 
Mythos people — namely, the ten Greater Mysteries. 
To-day 1 am not entering upon any explanation 
of the latter ; they are not within the juris- 
diction of this Lodge, and would probably only 
be of interest to some few of you. They are only 



an evolution of the former — i.e. as man advanced 
up the scale to a higher type, anatomically and 
physiologically, so his mental conception evolved 
a higher ideal of those sublime tenets which we 
are taught, and should practise. 

Many students of Freemasonry at the present 
day have no doubt that all our Signs, Symbols, 
and Rituals have been handed down to us from 
generation to generation from the remotest past, 
but from whence they originated, and how it is 
that we are the greatest Brotherhood in the whole 
world — ever increasing in force, strength, and 
numbers, knit together in one bond — is a question 
that students ponder, and to which many are 
striving to obtain an insight. The casual Brother 
does not trouble his head about these things ; the 
majority look upon Freemasonry merely as a sort 
of Brotherhood for social intercourse and charity. 
Up to a certain point their views are correct ; our 
gatherings at the Lodges, and the social functions 
that follow after, tend to increase a fraternal feel- 
ing and goodfellowship one to the other. This is 
rightly so, and it is strengthened by the beautiful 
tenets and rituals which are taught and have been 
witnessed many times. As a charity it is certainly 
the greatest in the world, and we Freemasons are 
justly proud that it is, because each one gives 
according to his means, knowing that his gift is 
gratefully received and faithfully applied to the 


■4^ ' vv 

r> If 


good causes which come within the length of 
our C.T. 

But there is a higher view. Freemasonry means 
much more than this. In Freemasonry we have 
many mysteries, handed down to us from remote 
ages, of a glorious past, a knowledge of which 
many are striving to obtain. This knowledge can 
be obtained only in one way, and that is by 
mastering the old writings of the Egyptians and 
glyphs of the Stellar Mythos people, or a transla- 
tion ; to obtain information of the evolution of man 
in all its phases, and to learn the history of the 
past, because by that, and that alone, can the 
origin and meaning of all that is attached to the 
term " Brotherhood of Freemasonry " be found. 

But you must learn these; and not from 
ignorance, from the want of this knowledge, draw 
conclusions, make guesses, and theories, of what 
these ideographs, signs, and symbols are, as many 
writers on Freemasonry in the past and present 
have done — for instance, Bro. Armitage considers 
that the symbols found in ancient buildings were 
used by the building traders only ; in other 
words, by the Operative Masons. That is quite 
wrong, and this theory could only have arisen in 
the minds of those unable to read Sign Language. 
Bro. Gould has fallen into the same error. 

The Mexican and Central American Glyphs 
and the Egyptian ideographic Signs and Symbols 



have the same interpretation, and, as I have often 
proved, all these are part of the Eschatology of the 
old Egyptians, and have nothing to do with the 
" Operative Masons," or Operative Masons' 
Marks, except indirectly. The Operative Mason 
came into being at the time of building the 
Temples on their Astro-Mythological foundation. 
These Operative Masons were initiated into some 
of the mysteries of the first and second degrees 
only, and were never advanced further in the old 
seven mysteries ; therefore you must not make the 
mistake about them that a great many have done, 
and still do, because they cannot read and under- 
stand Ancient Writings. 

These are not Freemasons with the Ritual of old 
Egypt, with all their Eschatology, but were the 
builders of the Pyramids and Temples for the old 
High Priests, certainly three hundred thousand 
years ago or more. The Priests of our cult, who 
were the learned men at that time, initiated a cer- 
tain class of men into part of the first and second 
degrees, because the Great Pyramid and other 
Temples had to be built, and the secrets of these 
buildings kept. These men came from the seven- 
teenth Nome of Upper Egypt, and were de- 
scendants of the Madi, Nilotic Negroes. They 
were selected to be special attendants to the 
Temples, and were builders, etc., styled Com- 
panions and Craftsmen, in Egyptian. They always 


kept the secrets, and have ever done so, and I 
doubt very much if any Masons at the present 
day could erect such buildings as those old 
Turanians did. 

This, I trust, will explain the dififerences between 
the Operative and Speculative Masons, and 
although many writers have mixed these up, the 
old Theopneustics of Egypt never did. There 
could be no such mixture there — they knew — the 
origin of the two being as I have stated. The 
proof of this can be found in the Ritual. 

Our Brotherhood is the outcome of the evolution 
of religious ideas from the time of primitive man, 
who first adopted a sacred sign and symbol, pro- 
pitiated the elementary powers, and believed in a 
Great Spirit, up to the period of the final working 
out and perfecting of the Eschatology (or doctrine 
of final things) of the Ancient Egyptians at their 
zenith of power. Obviously, however, much of the 
original must have been lost. We have substi- 
tuted our present innovations for that which we 
have lost— for instance, the genuine secrets of a 
M.M., which were the secrets of the underworld 
in the Stellar Mythos, and of Amenta in the Solar 
Cult. The one, however, was only an evolution 
of the other. 

The reason that we travel from East to West in 
search of that which is lost is that when Osiris 
lost his life by the machinations of Sut, like all 



Manes he travelled from East to West to enter 
Amenta, and in the Stellar Cult travelled in the 

Then in Amenta, after passing through diffi- 
culties, dangers, and darkness in the Tuat, his 
Manes was regenerated or raised again as Amsu- 
Horus, or Horus in Spirit, and he came forth from 
Amenta after entering the West to the Glorious 
Mount of the East again as a raised Manes or 
Glorified Spirit, and although this was Solar 
Cult, Ancient records prove that it was brought 
on from the Stellar. It is identical with the 
death of Horus I. and his rising again as Amsu 
in spirit form. 

This was the origin of that part of the Ritual, 
for which we have substituted the name of H.A., 
who was not killed, but lived to a very old age. 
Proofs of this may be found in the V.S.L., 
Josephus, and others. (2 Chron. iv. 11 : "And 
Hiram finished the work that he was to make for 
King Solomon for the house of God." Josephus : 
"He lived at Tyre long afterwards.") 

I sis and Nephthys tried first to raise him, but it 
proved a failure ; then Anubis raised him, as at 
present carried out. It was not the body Corpus 
that was raised, but the Spiritual body, or Sahu, 
that was raised up out of the dead matter Corpus. 
He returned to the East with all the secrets of 
Amenta. That is the true and original answer to 


the question of What is that which was lost? 
The secrets of Amenta, or the underworld, were 
the genuine secrets of a M.M. 

The genuine password for a Master of the Lodge 
in Egypt is " Maat Heru," one whose voice must 
be obeyed. Here it was, in Amenta, that the Tatt 
Cross was thrown down ; here it was that the veil 
of the Temple was rent asunder, and the Cubic 
Stone poured forth blood and water, and all was 
reborn. Here he was shown all the signs, given 
and taught those passwords, or words of power 
and might that kept evil and powers of darkness 
away, and enabled him to pass through the under- 
world and be raised to the glorious resurrection in 
Spirit form. The Egyptian religion, which was 
universal throughout the world at one time, was 
founded on the raising again of the human soul 
emerging alive from the body of dead matter. 
The Corpus could not, and never did, come back, 
or make its appearance again in any form, but 
the spirit that arose from this was seen by Seers. 

Religion proper commences with, and must 
include, the idea or desire for another life. This 
belief in another life is founded on the resurrec- 
tion of the Spirit. The belief in the resurrection 
of the Spirit was founded upon the faculties 
of abnormal Seership. 

So we have that beautiful ceremony in the M.M. 
degree symbolical of this part of the Egyptian 


Eschatology, as witnessed by the Ritual, and 
which the old Priests of Egypt worked in a much 
more beautiful and extended ceremony than we 
do. It was, in fact, the working of the M.M. 
and the 18" combined. It was the teaching, 
symbolically, of the life you should lead in this 
world and all you have to pass through in the 
next to obtain that promised life eternal. 

These were all acted symbolically and dramatic- 
ally, the more to impress it upon the Brothers, 
and the Signs and Symbols were brought on 
from the beginning. This was the secret Sign 
Language known to the Priests only. In some 
cases these have been changed as evolution pro- 
gressed, but the decipherment of these ideographs 
proves that the interpretations are analogous ; and 
although we do not profess any religious doctrines 
in Freemasonry, yet it is the highest form of 
religion conceivable in the human intellect. You 
must please understand that " Amenta " was 
simply an " ideograph " to teach the Mysteries, 
and not believed to be a real passage through 
the Earth. 

It is non-sectarian, and at the present day we 
have Brothers of all creeds meeting together in our 
Temples, without a particle of feeling of anything 
but that of Brotherhood, And why? Because 
Freemasonry was founded upon the religion of the 
ancient Egyptians, which was universal. Founded 


in the belief of the One Great Spirit, creator of 
all things. Founded on the rising again of the 
Spirit from the dead corpus. Founded on the 
tenets that are those of the Ritual of old Egypt. 
At the downfall of the old Egyptian Empire 
the Priests of old Egypt were scattered over ihe 
face of the earth and water, some retaining one 
part of the Ritual, some another part ; and so 
many look upon them as various and different 
creeds, yet if you study these and find the origin of 
all, you will only arrive in the end at one source 
— old Egypt. That names and some forms and 
ceremonies have changed matters nothing ; it does 
not alter the original. That is the reason that we 
have Brothers of all creeds and denominations 
meeting together in one insoluble bond, and, in 
my opinion, it is one of the immutable laws of 
the Divine Creator that we shall, in some not far 
distant time, be all united again under one banner 
as of old. Whatever that name may be is im- 
material, but it will be " Freemasonry," which 
possesses the truer form of the old Ritual than 
any other Cult. 


This Symbol (Fig. 24) was the original sacred 
sign used amongst primitive man (see Fig. 25), the 
Pygmies, the original homo, who were developed in 
Africa from an Anthropoid Ape. I have been 


amongst these little people, and with them it means 
"The Great One," "The Chief." It is just three 
sticks crossed, as you see. Now, let us trace the 
development of this to our present day, not as a 
theory, but as a fact — for the evidence and proofs 
are still extant. In following the evolution and 
history of the human race I find that two develop- 
ments have been evolved out of this original sign, 
yet the meaning of the symbolism is the same in 

First, amongst some of the Nilotic Negroes who 

P CP )j< 

Fig. 24. Fig. 35. Fig. 26. 

followed the Pygmy all over the world and were a 
higher-developed type of man. (See " Origin and 
Evolution of Primitive Man.") They converted 
Fig. 25 into a double cross, Fig. 26, by placing 
the two sticks in a different way, and it is used 
amongst these people as one of their most sacred 
signs in their Totemic Ceremonies, and has been 
adopted by those who followed down to our present 
Christian and other Cults as one of their sacred 
signs, and is used by Brothers of the higher 
degrees. The symbolism and meaning are identical 
all through. Amongst the Stellar Mythos people 


(those who first reckoned time and kept their 
record by observation of the precession of the 
seven Pole Stars) it was used in the primary form, 
and is an Egyptian ideograph for Amsu — i.e. it is 
the first name given to the risen Horus, or, as 
Christians would say, the risen Christ. In a later 
phase, in the form of a double-headed Hammer 
or Axe, it was a symbol of the Great One, the 
Great Prince. 

When primitive man began to learn more it 
became of great import, and amongst some tribes 
a special hut was built for it. The Priest and 
Great Chief were the only people allowed to see 
it. This is still extant at the present time amongst 
the Nilotic Negroes in Africa. In the Stellar 
Mythos it was also a symbol representing Horus 
— The Great Chief of the Hammer was one of 
his names ; The Cleaver of the Way ; the God 
of the Double Power, or Double Equinox — and 
it was brought on in the Solar Cult in the same 
way, when they recorded time by the sun's revo- 
lution. The Great God Ptah was not only the 
G.A.O.T.U., but was also called The Great Chief 
of the Hammer. (See Ritual.) 

The proofs of this are found in the old Temples 
of Egypt, in the Ritual of Ancient Egypt, in 
Central and South America, Asia, and, as Evans 
found, at Knossos, where in the centre of the 
Temple were discovered three cubes, one surmount- 


ing the other, with an ideograph sign on each 
(Fig. 4), representing figuratively the Great One of 
the North =Horus I. ; The Great One of the 
South=Sut, El Shaddai of the Hebrews (who was 
originally primary god when they first worked out 
their Astro-Mythology in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere) ; The Great One of the Central = Shu, 
the God of the Equinox. This has been brought 
on in our Brotherhood as the symbol used and 
represented as in the Egyptian. It is the symbol 
of the Master, the double-headed hammer, the 
gavel, in Egyptian, Neter, as representing The 
Great and Powerful One, The One Great Chief 
— in our case, the great all-powerful one of the 
Lodge, the W. Master ; therefore I am sure you 
will agree with me that this is one of our symbols 
that has been handed down from the remotest 
antiquity ; but the symbolism has not changed 
through all the evolutions of the human race from 
the first to the present day, and we have the 
other two gavels, representatives of this Treble 
Cube in the J.W. and S.W. in this Lodge, and 
these are the representatives of the three Grand 
Originals in the R.A.C. 

Now let us turn to the date of origin and jorni 
of our Lodge. Our Temples or Lodges first 
originated at the time of Totemic Sociology, over 
six hundred thousand years ago. These were 
formed at first in the seventeenth Nome of Upper 


Egypt, and the Temples were built first as a circle, 
then in the form of a double square, and at first 
were not covered in, as far as we know ; simply 
surrounded by walls made of stone with a Watcher 
and Herald, both armed with a knife, at the 
entrance. The ancient Egyptians, when working 
out their Astro-Mythology, first divided the Heavens 
into North and South — depicted by the two 
Columns J. and B., and sometimes by two circles 
(Fig. 27), then as a Triangle, next as 
a Square, and finally as a Circle ; and 
N )~ as they portrayed Heaven in these 
forms, so in each case was the earth 

symbolized — it was always a double 
earth — i.e. the Earth and the Earth of 
Eternity. The first things they noticed 

at the Equinox were the Pole Stars, 
Fig. 27. 

those stars which never set. 

Primitive man was evolved somewhere around 

the Great Lakes, the source of the Nile in Africa, 

and as he advanced in knowledge and worked out 

his Astro -Mythology, he never forgot the tradition 

of his home, which must have been handed down 

verbally from generation to generation. It was 

looked upon as the highest land or summit of the 

earth, which they called Ta-Nuter, or Holy Land 

— the Land of Spirits, or Khui Land, because it 

was from here that the two Pole Stars, which 

never set, could be seen resting on the horizon. 


This was the summit of the Earthly Mount. The 
Two Eyes, side by side, was one mode of express- 
ing this ideographically. The Pole Star, or The 
Eye, therefore, became a type of the Eternal, be- 
cause, apparently, it never changed with time. It 
was the earliest ideographic type of supreme intelli- 
gence which gave the law in heaven, which was 
all- seeing, unerring, just, and true. It was the 
centre of the Circumpolar Paradise, and it became 
a standpoint in the heavens for the mind of man 

Fig. 28. 

to rest on at the centre, and radiate to the circum- 
ference : that point within a circle from which 
you could not err. But it was not here that you 
could find the secrets of a M.M. That is where 
we have gone wrong and made a bad innovation in 
our Ritual by not understanding the true gnosis. 
One must know all the secrets of a M.M. before 
arriving here, and it was in Amenta they learnt 
these, not in the Celestial Paradise at the North. 
That is where the G.A.O.T.U. will receive you 
after you have travelled through the difficulties, 


dangers, and valley of death, when the Soul has 
been weighed by Ap-Senui and you are found 
worthy to receive the password of the door leading 
to eternal life (Fig. 28). 

These were then represented by two poles. North 
and South (the origin of our Columns J. and B.). 
From these two Eyes there was therefore a 
straight line from North Star to South (Fig. 29), 
which was divided into two equal divisions by 

Fig. 2q. 

Fig. 30. 

Fig. 31. 

Shu at the Equinox, as in Fig. 30, Shu thus giving 
the two Triangles of Sut and Horus, and then 
the four quarters, or Square, was filled in and 
formed later (Fig. 31). 

Heaven being now divided into four quarters, or 
a Square, and the Earth being the same, it became 
a double square, and all Temples throughout all 
the world were built in this form as a representa- 
tion of the Symbolisms of Earth and Heaven, 
with the Pedestal of the Primary Trinity in the 
Centre (Fig. 32). This was the universal plan 
all through the Stellar and Lunar Mythos. 


When the Solar Cult took the place of the Stellar 
and Lunar, Ptah, the G.A.O.T.U., figuratively 
worked out a tunnel through the Earth, called 
Amenta ; a passage for the Sun and Moon and 
Manes to go through the underworld, where all 
the difficulties, dangers, and trials had to be passed 
before entering that Circumpolar Paradise situated 
at the North. Before (i.e. during) the early part 
of the Stellar Cult the Manes passed through the 
underworld down beneath the earth — " The Great 
Void." During the Stellar Mythos Egypt was 

Fig. 32. 

Fig. 33. 

figuratively divided into a Square. The Manes 
entered at the North and passed South through this 
underworld, and came out in a cave situated on an 
Island in a Lake (The Great Lake, Victoria Nyanza 
and Tanganiki, which were then one — i.e. the 
Khui Land), the original place from whence the 
first man came, as well as the source of their water 
of life— the Nile — which they knew. This was 
worked out in the Stellar Mythos first. 

The form of Amenta was given as a double 
square (Fig. ^;^) end to end— the double earth. 
Then Egypt was divided into two squares, the 


North and South, and so you have the Crown 
of the North and the Crown of the South. In 
all Temples you find these were built in this form, 
the original being the House of Earth as a square, 
and the House of Eternity as a square, in the 
Stellar Mythos, surmounted by a Triangle. This 
again was represented in the formation of Amenta 
as a double square, the result being that as all 
Temples were built on this plan it did not change 
its form when the Cults changed ; for in the 
seven Lesser Mysteries and the ten Greater 
Mysteries you have this form of all Temples, and 
your Lodge is on the same plan, but the orientation 
was changed. 

It is the origin of the form of our Lodge ; it 
is the origin of the form of all Temples, through 
all time, only during the Stellar Mythos the orienta- 
tion for the first fifty-two thousand years was 
South, then for three hundred thousand years at 
least it was North, and after that in the Solar 
Cult and up to the present day it has been East. 
We do not have the Cubes in our Lodges, although 
the R.A.C. does, and this is the correct form. 
But in Irish Lodges a Cube is in the Centre 
OF the Lodge as an Altar, on which is placed 
the Warrant, Book of Constitutions, Working 
Tools, etc., and around it are stationed the three 
" Lesser Lights," which represent the Egyptian 
Primary Trinity. Thus the Irish Lodges retain 


the true form, and, moreover, the Irish 1. has 
an address given to him pointing out what Free- 
masonry is, etc., just as the old priests of Egypt 
gave their I. I use the term square and double 
square because 1 do not like the American term, 
nor do 1 think it correct. I prefer to use the term 
" square " as the old Egyptians did, as this was 
the primary, and in my opinion I don't think we 
can improve upon their ideas. Although Amenta 
might by some be termed " a cube," it was not 
the idea of the Egyptians. This 
is proved by the representative L — k\ 

ideographs of the Upper and Lower 
Earth in the Ritual, viz. two ideo- 
graphs for two skies (one reversed) p , ./j 

i.e. a sky for each (Fig. 34), which 

, . , Fig. 34. 

proves that it was the same square 

as in the former Cult. 

Freemasonry is an Eschatology, taught origin- 
ally in Signs and Symbols, these originating in 
the mind of man from objective forms, and being 
subjective representations of sublime tenets which 
at this early period he had no words to express 
otherwise, and which afterwards became the secret 
and sacred writings and language of the Priests. 
Signs preceded words and words preceded writings. 
These teach you the highest ideals and concep- 
tions that the human intellect has ever evolved, 
both morally and eschatologically, and how you 



should live in this world to gain that everlasting 
life and happiness promised to us in that spiritual 
form which all must assume at no great distance 
of time. 

We are all striving to obtain a knowledge of 
" a something " which we feel there is, there must 
be, but many cannot yet understand what it is, and 
how to obtain it. There is that written on stone 
and on papyri (which has been preserved through 
hundreds of thousands of years) showing what we 
should do in this world to gain that everlasting 
life and happiness in the next, given by the Divine 
Creator to our forefathers, and the tenets of which, 
to a great extent, have been preserved to us 
Freemasons direct from- the original. 



A Lecture delivered before the Mid Kent Masters' Lodge, No. 3173, 
at Chatham, on the \^th March, 1913. 

There are very few students amongst our 
Brotherhood ; and even amongst those few 
scarcely one who can go beyond the " Modern 
Aspect " of Freemasonry ; I have chosen, there- 
fore, to discuss the " Ancient Origin " of Free- 
masonry, not the Modern Aspect, which covers 
a period of a few hundreds of years only. Bros. 
Gould, Anderson, Armitage, Horsley, Lawrence, 
and many other able writers and speakers have 
studied the latter. We have no written history 
of the Craft prior to that time, only traditions. 
Yet Freemasonry has existed for at least six 
hundred thousand years, but not under the name 
of Freemasonry. That term did not then exist. 
The farthest date back in which we find that word 
is 1376. But the word or term "Craftsman" 
was in existence more than six hundred thousand 

years ago, as were some of our Signs, Symbols, 



and Rituals. Freemasonry was then the religion 
of the world ; it existed not in this country only, 
but throughout Africa, Europe, Asia, America, and 
many islands in the Pacific. 

You may ask, How do I know this? It is 
because I have been enabled to read the writings 
on the wall still existing in the old ruined cities, 
and on various papyri that have been found in 
different parts of the world. Moreover, I dis- 
covered that these people were all of one Cult or 
Brotherhood, analogous in every particular to our 
own Brotherhood, and my knowledge of geology 
has assisted me in arriving at these conclusions as 
regards the vast ages of time. It is only by going 
back to the primary and tracing the human race 
from the beginning, the signs and symbols then 
formed as sign language in substitution for the 
articulate sounds, which at that time did not 
exist such as we have now, and following the 
history of the " rise and fall " of all great nations, 
and the causes for the same, that the secrets of 
the past can be unravelled. 

Having done this, after critically examining all 
existing evidence, one conclusion only can be 
arrived at, and it is that our Brotherhood 
originated with the old Mystery Teachers, or High 
Priests, in Old Egypt, whence various exodes 
spread throughout the world, carrying with them 
all the Rituals, Signs, and Symbols of the Brother- 


hood, primarily as Stellar Cult, and at a later 
date the Solar Eschatology. That this was so 
is proved by what we still find extant in many 
countries, i.e. all our Signs and Symbols, with 
engraved hieroglyphics explaining them by their 
side as an objective proof, and their hieroglyphic 
writings on papyri as subjective evidence. 

It must have taken hundreds of thousands of 
years to spread throughout the world, in view of 
the fact that presumedly journeys had to be made 
on foot at this early period of the world's 

The lowest strata of the earth's surface where 
remains of Stellar Cult man have been found is 
in the Pliocene Age, in Italy, which must date 
back six hundred thousand years or more. Also 
the Piltdown skull of a human found in Sussex.' 
Hence the proof of the great antiquity of man's 
existence on this earth as against the Biblical date, 
and however much some Brothers may express 
their disbelief of the ages of time I have men- 
tioned, they cannot gainsay or go against this 
geological fact ; it is sufficient proof. 

I want you to go back with me for a few minutes, 
so far away in the past, to the time when man had 
not the articulate language that we have now, and 
so expressed some of his ideas and thoughts in 

■ This is debatable — if this Piltdown skull was in the Pliocene 
or not. 


Signs and Symbols. Many conclusions arrived at 
were founded on the observation of the elemental 
powers and observation of natural phenomena. If 
you will bear this in mind, you will be able to 
understand better the reason for the origin of our 
Signs and Symbols, and why these have continued 
to be associated and represented in every religious 
cult with very little or no alteration from the 
original. Many of our Signs and Symbols were 
brought on prior to the Stellar Cult ; but it was 
during this period that the Great Pyramids, as 
well as the Temples, were built, which are found 
nearly all over the world. The old Brotherhood 
was one and the same iji forms, rites, and cere- 
monies, with the same Signs and Symbols in Africa, 
Asia, Europe, America, and some of the Pacific 

The Stellar Cult people's Temples and buildings 
can always be identified, because they were icono- 
graphic, whereas the Solar people's were not ; they 
both built with polygonal- shaped stones and 
monoliths. Therefore you can always distinguish 
definitely the ages of these Temples and who built 
them, and the reason was that in the Stellar Cult 
pre-human types were used, i.e. Zootypes, to 
represent the Great Architect of the Universe and 
His attributes ; whereas in the Solar the human 
types had taken the place of these. Their Temples 
were of the same form and shape as ours, except 


that they had the Pedestal, which the R.A.M.'s 
have, and which in the old Temples was always 
situated in the centre. These two different degrees, 
as we have made them, were then only one, as 
can be seen at the Temples of Knossos and those 
in Central America. 

The door of the Temple was an equilateral 
triangle, and therefore a Symbol of Heaven 
(Fig- 3 5). The Square was a Symbol of Earthl ; 
the whole entrance symbolized passing of 
the Soul from earth to heaven. / \ 

The two Pillars at the porchway en- 
trance of every Temple are specially im- 
portant in ancient symbolism. Originally 
these old Mystery Teachers divided the 
heavens into two divisions, North and South, 
which was represented by the Pole, or Pillar 
of Set, in the South— El Shaddai of the 
Phoenicians ; and the Pole, or Pillar of Horus, 
in the North, termed the " Sustainers of the 
Heavens." Sometimes two Eyes were portrayed 
as the two Poles, or, rather, two Pole Stars. These 
were the representative symbols of the two gods 
of the Pole Stars, North and South, called also 
the Two Judges. The Ideographs of them were 
Two Jackals, and were later called in Egyptian the 
two Tatt Pillars, one meaning " In Strength " and 
the other " To establish " ; and combined Tattu, 
which in Egyptian also means " The place of estab- 


lishing for ever." The four lines at the top 
represent the Celestial and Terrestrial Worlds. 

The next division was symbolized by the division 
of heaven in two circles, North and South. (These 
we find in many places in Cornwall and Scotland, 
and throughout the world.) This was the first and 
oldest form of the Temple in the world, a circle of 
twelve stones. After this, the next phase of heaven 
was depicted by two Triangles ; No. i, Fig. 36, 
was the Ideographic name and symbol for Set, and 
No. 2, Fig. 36, was the Ideographic name 
and symbol of Horus. At a later epoch 
these two Triangles were joined (see 
Fig. 8) as a representative symbol for 
heaven, or the Land of the Spirits or 
'^' ^ ' Gods ; and when Horus became Primary 
God of the North and superseded Set, the Primary 
God of the South, these were afterwards depicted 
as Fig. 7, and this was associated with the name 
of Horus only. It represents, in the Egyptian, 
" Ra Harmachus " ; another name was Aiu, the 
God of the Double Horizon, which was one of the 
forms of Horus ; it was from this part of the old 
Egyptian Eschatology that the Hebrew Cult was 

These two triangles must be of great interest to 
you because of the various forms in which they are 
portrayed — curiously enough, on your own notice 
sent out I find one form. Fig. 2i7 ^ which is prac- 


tically the same as Fig. 7, with the all-seeing eye 
in the centre. These triangles, in another phase, 
form the five-pointed star (Fig. 38). In this 
latter there should be a point in the centre, which 
we have left out, but in the original it was there ; 

Fig. 37. 

KiG, 38. 

it was the point in the centre of a circle (Fig. 39), 
equal to the point at the top of the triangle 
or cone (Fig. 40), that was crowned with the star 
at the summit and has the same meaning as the 

Fig. 39. 

Fig. 40. 

Eye. The Eye is an Ideograph of the Pole 
Star, and two eyes therefore symbols of the 
two Pole Stars, but at the time that the two 
triangles were blended in the form of Fig. 7 
the Eye was an Ideograph of the Pole Star North, 


associated with Horus only. This one, the centre 
of the six other Pole Stars of Ursa Minor, pr 
Little Bear, revolved in a circle around this centre 
one, therefore the Pole Star was a symbol or 
type of the eternal, because apparently it never 
changed with time. It was the earliest type of 
supreme intelligence which gave the law, which 
was unerring, just, and true, and it became a 
standpoint in the heavens for the mind of man 
to rest on at the centre and radiated to the circum- 
ference (a point within a circle from which one 
could not err). It was also a type or symbol of 
the Judge, or Just One. This will give you the 
origin and meaning of the symbols you use on 
your stationery, which "are associated with these 
two triangles. The interpretation is that this is the 
symbol of the Just God who gave the Law ; The 
Great Architect of the Universe. As regards " That 
point within a circle," a bad innovation has been 
made here, on account of not knowing the true 
gnosis of the Ritual of Ancient Egypt, as this 
was not the place that all the secrets were com- 
municated and known ; " This Centre of the 
Circle " represented Paradise. They left the East 
to go to the West to obtain the secrets of M.M. 
These secrets were given in " Amenta," which was 
entered in the West, and traversed until they came 
out in the East, before they could enter Paradise 
situated at the North. The secrets were taught and 


given in Amenta, which was portrayed as an 
Ideographic Symbol, to teach the Mysteries, and 
was not beUeved to be anything but Mythical by 
the old wise men of Egypt ; the old Mystery 
Teachers. The D.C. of the i8' corresponds to 
Amenta in our teachings. 

The next evolution was the heavens in the form 
of a Square, and as they portrayed a uranographic 
picture here so they depicted the earth — thus you 
have two Squares, the later form of the two 
Triangles, and it was in this form they built the 
Temples, a double square end to end, 
with the cubes in the centre to mark 
the division between Heaven and 
Earth. On the top of the cube was 
a circle of gold enclosing the Sacred FicTdi. 
Triangle, and at each corner was the 
Ideographic name of one of the Primary Trinity, 
or the Three Grand Originals (Fig. 41). 

Thus you see the progressive evolution of the 
mind of man as depicted by the different Signs 
and Symbols he used to express his thoughts and 
beliefs when he had no language as we have 

1 . He divided the Heavens into North and 
South, and symbolized this by the Two Pillars — 
that of Set for the South and that of Horus for 
the North. 

2. The two Pole Stars, N. and S., were de- 


picted as two Eyes, also as symbols of Set and 
Horus as the Two Judges. 

3. Then we have the Heavens divided into two 
Circles, the North for Horus and the South 
for Set. 

4. The next is the Heavens symbolized by the 
two Triangles into the two equal divisions, with 
the same meaning as the Circles. 

5. In the next portrayal, Set, or the South Pole 
Star, has sunk down below the horizon as the old 
people came North from the Equatorial Provinces 
of Africa, where they were born or originated, 
and the Pole Star North has risen in the Heavens, 
i.e. Horus has become the highest and supreme 
one and appropriated all the attributes of Set unto 
himself ; and now — 

6. The Heavens are represented as a Square. 
The two Triangles merged into one, which has 
four supports, symbolized as the brothers or 
children of Horus. 

7. The Pole Star North (Horus) represented by 
one Eye now becomes " The All-Seeing Eye," a 
type of the Great Judge of All (Fig. 14). 

These Symbols and Signs were used by these old 
Mystery Teachers to represent the Great Architect 
of the Universe and His various attributes when 
they had no language of words to express their 
thoughts as we have now. This was part of their 
Sign Language — their sacred symbols which have 


been handed on from generation to generation to 
the present day, the interpretation varying some- 
what with each successive Cult. 

So many, even learned men, who ought to know 
better, have stated verbally and in writing that the 
old Egyptians w^orshippcd many gods, birds, cats, 
and other animals, etc. This was not so. These 
old Priests, the forefathers of our Brotherhood, 
only believed and worshipped One Great God, the 
Great Architect of the Universe, expressed by 
various Signs and Symbols. If the Triangle was 
the sign and symbol of the Great God, it was the 
Great. God that was worshipped, and not the 
Triangle. The Triangle was held sacred because 
it was a symbol made to represent Him. In twenty 
thousand years' time it is quite possible that those 
who come after us and find " the Lamb " 
sculptured in our churches will say that we were 
worshippers of sheep — which would be just as 
true as many say of the old Egyptians at the 
present time. If the S>Tnbol represented the Deity, 
it was the Deity that was worshipped and not the 

Bro. Hobbs, in a letter to The Freemason, states 
that I speak derisively of Thomas Payne and others 
who attribute the origin of the Craft as Druidical. 
Let me state here distinctly I did nothing of the 
kind. What I said was that Payne and others 
stated that these old Druids worshipped the Sun, 


Moon, and Stars, but I say it was not so. These 
were symbols either representing the Deity or some 
of His attributes, which the Druids perfectly under- 
stood, but which the learned men of the present 
day do not, and have taken the shadow for the 
substance and mixed them up, which will not help 
to understand the Wisdom of Ancient Egypt, or 
give any knowledge or meaning of all you find 
of the peoples of past ages. 

Many would wish to know how these have 
been handed on from the time they came into 
existence up to the time you found them used in 
your Lodges. The answer to this, fully set forth, 
with the proofs, would fill a big volume ; I will, 
however, try and explain in a few words so that 
you will be able to think out the details as I 
have done. 

To commence with, all the sacred Signs and 
Symbols first used by these old Mystery Teachers 
in their Stellar Cult were brought on into their 
Lunar and Solar Cults, and from the Solar Escha- 
tology, the earliest Christians, the Copts, adopted 
them. Some of the original forms have been 
slightly changed, others were discarded by the later 
Christians ; examples of this you can find in many 
old churches here in England ; one in particular, 
Launceston Church, in Cornwall, is rich in the 
early emblems which were worked here in stone 
and built in by the old Druidical Priests, who 


became Christians between looo and 1500. In 
Mr. Harold Bayley's books you will find numerous 
examples. They are also to be found in the 
churches of the Abyssinians. That the Chinese 
have them is because these are old Stellar Cult 
people, who left Egypt at the time that the hiero- 
glyphic language was undergoing the evolution of 
having affixes and prefixes added to the original 
Ideograph, and before the Hieratic and Demotic 
were evolved. That the Hindoos and Jews have 
them is because these were Solar Mythos people 
when they left Egypt, and are still so (in two 
difi'erent forms or epochs of time), so that many 
are thinking at the present day that all these 
people have difTerent religions, yet in reality it 
is not so. Names have changed, language has 
become reflected instead of monosyllabic, there- 
fore the majority now express in words, in difi'erent 
ways, what was formerly sign language ; the origin 
of all was one and the same, and because some 
have travelled by one road and some by another, 
and have different tales to tell of the routes by 
which they travelled, you must not lose sight and 
meaning of the originals. You can trace them all 
back the way they came, as you can trace them 
all from the earliest to the present time — if you 
will only leave out the dogmas that have been 

The old Brothers were the men of the highest 


learning and integrity in all countries, and had to 
be proven before they could be admitted at each 
higher grade they attained to. None of the 
common and unlearned were ever admitted to their 
secrets or Brotherhood, and this is the reason why 
we do not admit slaves into our Brotherhood. 

What was the cause of the destruction and 
supposed loss of all their old Eschatology, or 
Doctrine of Final Things? 

When Egypt was at its zenith dissensions arose 
amongst the Priests, and, as the inevitable result. 
Socialism followed. No peoples have ever risen 
to be a great nation and then fallen and been 
destroyed except for these two primary causes, 
and no downfall was so great as that of Egypt. 

Their Temples were thrown down and given over 
to fire and sword, and their old writings were 
burned, or lost, or became unintelligible to the 
destroyer. But we find that remnants of the old 
Priesthood who were our old Brothers escaped ; 
others had been established in other countries, as, 
for example, the Druids in this country and in 
the North of France and in America ; these again 
had to flee before the sword. 

The old faith was never entirely lost, however, 
but was kept secret and sacred by a scattered few, 
and you must remember that their Signs, Symbols, 
and the meaning of their Rituals were only known 
to a chosen few — men of unimpeachable character. 


integrity, and honour, who have been tried and 
tested. From these few, we, the present Brother- 
hood of Freemasons, have been evolved ; we have 
risen out of the ashes of past ages to form a 
Brotherhood throughout the world again, as of 
old, with all the same Signs, Symbols, sacred rites 
and ceremonies. 

Many innovations have become necessary to 
replace some of the lost secrets, and to meet the 
higher state of evolution which humanity has now 
attained. For instance, for the true password for 
M.M. — Maat-Heru in Egyptian, meaning one 
whose voice must be obeyed — we have substituted 
another ; also in our passwords for grips we have 
substituted our present for the original — in fact, 
there are several in the various degrees, but I 
know all in the Egyptian from the first to the 
thirty-third, and I do not think it matters now 
to attempt any change. During the last hundred 
years the Brotherhood has been striving to raise 
itself again towards " the greater standard " and 
to attain a higher evolution. 

This is a short resume of the Past, and there 
is no time at my disposal to bring forward all 
proofs of that which I have stated ; indeed, all 
the proofs that I have found would occupy many 
large volumes, but in my " Signs and Symbols of 
Primordial Man," Second Edition, there are more 
proofs given. It is a book that took me twenty 



years to complete, but it was a labour of love, 
because it was written for the information of the 
Brotherhood " who could not read the writings 
on the wall." But it is not a work which is 
perfect by any means. It is written to guide 
and interest you in the right road to the know- 
ledge you wish to obtain ; a small path cut through 
a dense, dark forest, which I hope others will 
broaden and enlarge. 

Much has been said lately on the subject of 
Freemasonry and religion. Many Brethren, and 
some of them very eminent and learned divines, 
have stated — and no doubt they would not make 
the statement if they did not believe it — " that 
Freemasonry is not a religion." Brothers, my con- 
tention is that Freemasonry is the greatest, truest, 
and purest religion in the world, for these reasons : 

1. Religion proper commences with and must in- 
clude the idea or desire for and belief in another 

2. This belief in another life is founded on the 
belief of the resurrection of the Spirit. 

3. We all believe in one great God, the Great 
Architect of the Universe. 

4. Therefore we all believe in the rising again of 
the human soul, emerging alive from the body of 
dead matter. This body of dead matter could not 
come back or rise again, if disintegrated, but the 
Spirit could. 


5. In our teachings, in our forms and ceremonies 
which are dramatically performed, we are taught 
how we should live in this world, and how we 
should die, to attain that great end of everlasting 
happiness which is the one object all the Brother- 
hood profess and desire to attain. Therefore this 
is the greatest, truest, and purest religion in the 
world, void of all dogmas, one in which poor 
humanity can work together in perfect harmony, 
and one in which there cannot be any dissensions 
to disturb the fraternal feelings which should 
always exist between us, and may it ever continue 
to be the same. 

We have no history for those who cannot read 
ancient writings except a decipherment and trans- 
lation of some of these symbols and workings 
which I have given, which probably many have 
never heard of, few have read, and which are 
ignored by some or adversely criticized by others, 
who are not acquainted with the knowledge of 
these decipherments, and who cannot read the 
writings on the walls. Few Brothers have studied 
the history and evolution of the human race, and 
the religious conceptions during the evolution, 
which alone contain the secret of the development 
of Freemasonry. Without a knowledge of the 
past there can be no guide to the future. 

And what of the future? It is only by studying 
the past that you can gain a true knowledge of 


what Freemasonry is. At present many are only 
in the analogous position of the poor aboriginal 
natives of Australia and other countries. You have 
forms, ceremonies, Signs, Symbols, and Ritual, 
which you repeat, and act, without understanding 
their true origin and meaning — as they do in their 
Totemic ceremonies — but that is not what true 
Freemasonry is ; nor is being letter perfect, or a 
good orator, or a dramatist. These points are to 
be highly appreciated ; they enhance the greater 
solemnity of our ceremonies, and photograph our 
beautiful Ritual more indelibly on the mind of the 
initiate ; but if we do not act those principles in 
our lives outside the Lodge, which we so solemnly 
promise in the Lodge, what frauds we are ! 

The past and continuous thought of the majority 
of our Brotherhood is one of self, rightly when it 
especially affects themselves — Feasting and Chari- 
ties. But within the last few years a very bright 
star has arisen in Freemasonry. There are many 
in the Craft who are striving to bring about that 
high ideal of Brotherhood to be a reality, and not 
a sham, although they have little encouragement 
from the powers that govern the Order. 

I congratulate you Brothers of the Mid-Kent 
Masters' Lodge on being amongst those that are 
striving to elevate our Brotherhood, because the 
meeting together, the reading of lectures on the 
many subjects that are of vital importance to 


the Craft, the discussions that follow on these, can- 
not but result in a vast amount of good. Whether 
the papers are considered good, bad, or indifferent, 
the results obtained in the end must be to the 
advantage of the Brethren. 

Although we are the greatest Charity in the 
world, and that is the only thing that interests 
many — which, so far, is right and good — yet that 
is not Freemasonry, nor will Freemasonry ever be 
advanced farther in evolution, or coalescing the 
Brotherhood into one great fraternal and universal 
whole by it. The One Great Universal Brother- 
hood, each individual carrying out those sublime 
tenets he was taught in the Lodge in his daily life 
outside the Lodge, is what Freemasonry should 
and must attain. Many Brothers do not think, 
and therefore do not practise these things outside 
the Lodge. 

It is the action of the individual Mason in 
discharging with great fidelity every duty he has 
in this life, both outside the Lodge as well as 
within, that will raise the Fraternity. How can 
we hope to attain Universal Brotherhood without 
setting the example in this the mother country to 
our present Brotherhood throughout the world? 
If the mother is careless and indifferent, her 
children will become careless and indifferent. The 
whole Brotherhood of the world look up to you 
for example and precept. How jealous, therefore, 


should you be to exemplify to the world that every 
Mason should carry out the tenets in action, and 
not in platitude only. 

Then let there be no discord and divisions 
amongst you, because, if these predominate, instead 
of establishing the unity of Universal Brotherhood, 
the human brotherhood becomes more and more 
widely separated. Let there exist a perfect unity 
of sentiment between you ; or, if there must be a 
difference, let it be of emulation in the exercise of 
those good qualities which, while they dignify our 
nature, add lustre to the highest and beauty to the 
lowest station. Let the principles and precepts of 
morality and fervent piety, which are continually 
ascending from our altars, repress every unkind 
thought and smooth every asperity of feeling. 

And why should this not be so? 

The answer remains with yourselves, and in the 
action of your daily lives. You can all attain the 
ideal if you try, and if all strive then the Brother- 
hood will be a living reality, with the power of 
governing the world for human happiness. I 
believe it is only a question of time before our 
great ideal will be realized. Freemasonry during 
the last fifty years has made much progress, and 
even within the last few years has raised itself 
towards that standard, and the number of Brothers 
who are working to attain that goal has so 
increased every year, that the outlook for the 


future of Freemasonry is very bright. But we 
want more workers and we want a higher 
!^ standard generally. We have no dogmas or creeds 

^ to confuse the faith and belief in the One Great 

Eternal and Divine Architect of the Universe, 
Creator of all things. Therefore no question of 
a difference of creed could obtrude itself or cause 
any secessions amongst the Brothers of various 
climes and countries. By your universal combi- 
nation you possess the dominant power for the 
advancement, for the good of humanity generally. 
For Freemasonry to exist there is no way of 
standing still. It must progress or it must fall. 
This must be the question for you to answer : Is 
it to be Past, or Future? 

Therefore let each one steadily follow that 
Bright Star which has arisen. It is striving to 
throw its rays of light amongst us, and bring 
about that great ideal of Universal Brotherhood, 
so as to make the future of Freemasonry a great 
reality, and not an ideal in name only. 



A Lecture delivered before the Hendre Lodge, No. 3250, at the 
Masonic Temple, Cardiff, 2^ih April, 1913. 

Wales, in conjunction with the West of England, 
Devon and Cornwall, is particularly rich in pos- 
sessing remains of old Temples and stones, on 
which many Signs and Symbols are still extant, and 
can be seen ; hence you will recognize that here 
you possess objective proofs, and are therefore 
able the better to appreciate and follow me than 
many other Brothers who are not so rich in the 
possession of Sacred Symbols. I always feel a 
pleasure in giving information upon the origin 
and meaning of all our Signs and Symbols and 
Rituals, as without a knowledge of the Astro- 
Mythology and Eschatology of old Egypt it is 
impossible to decipher and find the true interpre- 
tation of these Signs and Symbols. 

To understand the meaning and origin of these 
we have to go back and return again by the road 
we came, far away back, six hundred thousand 


years ago. The remains of skeletons found in 
the Pliocene strata were of the present type of man, 
and were Stellar Mythos people, as was proved by 
the implements found with them. This is sufficient 
evidence alone, because these must date at least 
six hundred thousand years ago, probably much 

There is at the present time a learned American 
Professor excavating the Temples of the Sphinx, 
who, like many others, understands nc hing about 
the old Cults of Egypt, and is writing le greatest 
nonsense about this figure. One si ^ement in 
particular I would draw your especial attention 
to. He states that "the Sphinx is much older than 
the Pyramids," which is quite wrong. The Great 
Pyramid was built by the Stellar Cult people, and 
has portrayed in its figure all their astronomical 
knowledge, and their cults, in Sign language. The 
Sphinx was built by the early Solar people, 
thousands of years after, and represents Ra Har- 
machus, God of the Double Horizon. The proof 
of this is that the Sphinx itself has spoken once, 
and you will find this on the stele of Tahtmes IV, 
where it is called the Sphinx of Khepra, who 
was a form of Harmachus, of whom I c^"-^!! have 
to say more later on ; but the whole of the early 
Solar Cult is portrayed in this figure in Sign lan- 
guage, and may be easily deciphered and trans- 
lated by those who understand. But when 


professors write their theories, not understanding 
Sign language, or the old Cults of Ancient Egypt, 
it does an immense harm, because, coming from 
the pen of a professor, people generally take it 
that it must be true, whereas it is puerile nonsense. 
Modern ignorance of the mythical mode of repre- 
sentation has led to the ascribing of innumerable 
false beliefs. 

These Stellar Cult people were the first to build 
Temples. They built the Great Pyramid and many 
of the old Temples found in Africa, Europe, Asia, 
America, and some of the islands of the Pacific. 
Their Priests, w^o were their learned men, were 
the old Mystery Teachers of Egypt ; many exodes 
of them left Egypt and carried all their knowledge 
of building and their religion to most parts of the 
world. These were followed by a higher class and 
developed human — namely, the Solar Cult people. 

The buildings of the Stellar people can always 
be identified by their being Iconographic, whereas 
the Solar and others were not. Therefore, you 
can always distinguish definitely the ages of the 
Temples, and who built them. These people were 
the first to work out the old Astro-Mythology, and 
it is to this that we owe the origin of many of our 
Sacred Signs and Symbols. It is important to 
distinguish and know the difference, because the 
Stellar is so much older, and yet the Solar is only a 
further evolution of the Stellar. 


These old Mystery Teachers first divided the 
Heavens into two parts, the North and the South, 
which they symboUzed by two Poles or Pillars, one 
belonging to the North, and one to the South (see 
Fig. 15). These were called the two sustainers 
of Heaven ; also they represented the two Gods 
of the Pole Stars, and later, in Egyptian, were 
named the two Tatt Pillars. These two Pillars 
were always placed at the porchway entrance of 
every Temple in the world, and represent J. and 
B. in our Masonic Temples. 

The next portrayal of Heaven was symbolized 
by two circles representing a Pre-Zodiacal forma- 
tion of the Heavens in the Stellar Mythos. 
Fig. 27 represents the North (Horus) and the 
South (Set) respectively, which in Temple building 
were formed of twelve monoliths. Remains of 
these Circles, with twelve stones to each, may be 
seen in Wales, Cornwall, Scotland, India, .America, 
and many other parts of the world. These repre- 
sent the very first form of Temples built by man, 
and preceded the Temples in the form of a double 
square by many thousands of years. Probably 
these were not covered in. Much more could be 
said regarding these, but they are just mentioned 
to show their origin and meaning. 

In the next phase of representation we find 
Heaven depicted by two Triangles. These two 
Triangles are specially important in ancient sym- 


holism, more especially on account of the various 
portrayals of comhinations we find. In Wales 
and the West of England many are to be found, 
as well as in all countries where the old Stellar and 
Solar people traversed. The first phase of the 
two Triangles was as i, Fig. 6, which is an 
Ideograph for the name of Set— El Shaddai of 
the Phoenicians— and represented the God of the 
Pole Star South, as well as the southern division 
of Heaven ; and 2, which is an Ideographic symbol 
for Horus, represents the God of the Pole Star 
North and the northern division of Heaven. At 
a later epoch these two Triangles were joined (see 
Fig. 8) as a representative symbol for Heaven or 
the land of the Spirits. Sometimes we find these 
doubled, as in Fig. 21, where the two Double 
Triangles are surrounded by four Serpents, repre- 
senting symbolically the four Powers which guard 
the Land of the Spirits, as in Revelation " guarded 
the Throne and around about the Throne," called 
in Egyptian the Khui Land. A still later portrayal 
was a treble form of these, surrounded by concen- 
tric circles, as in Fig. 22. 

The meaning of all three forms is the same 
wherever found throughout the world, but one form 
is more ancient than the other. They are given 
here as they occurred in evolution. This Ideograph 
for the Khui Land, or the Land of the Spirits, was 
the most Sacred Symbol amongst our ancient 


Brothers, and still is so amongst the remnants of 
the Stellar Cult people living at the present 
time. The reason why we have two Triangles 
combined or blended into one symbol, or figure, 
as on our own Masonic jewels, calls for some 

Primordial man was born in Africa ; you will 
find proofs of this in my book " Origin and Evolu- 
tion of Primitive Man." About the region of 
the head of the Nile Valley, or Great Lakes, man 
could see and mark the two Pole Stars — North and 
South. The South was associated with Set, and the 
North with Horns. Then Set was primary God ; 
his Triangle or Ideograph was as i in Fig. 6. 
As these people left their old land and travelled 
to the North, the South Pole Star would sink down 
below the Horizon, and the North Pole Star would 
rise in tiie Heavens and become the only one 
visible, which was represented by the Ideograph for 
Horus (2 in Fig. 6). This is the mythical repre- 
sentation of Shu lifting up the Heavens. Horus 
was then given all the attributes of Set, and the 
triangle of Set became blended with the triangle 
of Horus, and formed these double triangles in 
various phases, which were associated with the 
name of Horus only, first in the Stellar Cult and 
later carried on in their Solar Cult, and some of 
them afterv/ards into the Christian doctrines. One 
combination formed of these two triangles is that 


with the All-seeing Eye in the centre (Fig. 42). 
This form is an Ideographic symbol for Horus, as 
God of the Pole Star North and South, having the 
" All-seeing Eye." This originated with these old 
Stellar Cult people. At the Equatorial Provinces 
the two Pole Stars could be seen resting on the 
Horizon, and these were symbolized in one form, 
as two Eyes, called Merti in Egyptian (Fig. 13). 
In Egyptian these two Eyes were, therefore. Ideo- 
graphs for the two Pole Stars ; but when the South 
Pole Star had disappeared below the Horizon, and 

Fig. 42. Fig. 43. 

the North Pole Star had risen in the Heavens, there 
was only one Eye (Fig. 14). The North Pole 
Star had figuratively absorbed the South, and this 
North Pole Star became a symbol or type of the 
Eternal, because apparently it never changed with 
time. It was the earliest type of supreme intelli- 
gence which gave the law which was unerring, 
just, and true. It was also a type or symbol of the 
Great Judge, or Just One. The interpretation, 
therefore, of this symbol, sign, or ideograph 
(Fig. 42) is Horus, or T.G.A.O.T.U., the 
Eternal Lord of the North and South, the Great 


Judge, Unerring, Just, and True, Lord of the All- 
seeing Eye. This was always associated with 
Horus of the Stellar Cult only. 

There is still another form of the Triangle, or 
rather a combination of the two, as in Fig. 43, 
which represents a Star with five points, a more 
ancient formation than the previous one, which, in 
its true form, belonged to the Stellar Cult people 
only. Many may not at first recognize that this 
is a combination of the same two Triangles, but 
if you will follow the mode of formation, as in 

Fig. 44. 

Figs. 44 and 45, it will be seen that it is so. 
The upper part of Set's Triangle (44 aaa) is cut 
off and attached to or joined to the Triangle of 
Horus. Also see that the base line or divisional 
line at the equinox (Fig. 45 b) has been removed 
or is absent, and there is a reason for this, which 
speaks for itself, in symbolic language. It portrays 
graphically that Set's Triangle was given to Horus 
when he became primary God of the Pole Sta,r 
North. In the oldest formations of this symbol 
there was a dot or Star in the centre, which is 
equal to the Eye given in other representations. 


The interpretation is the same in each case, i.e. 
these are Ideographic Signs or Symbols for Horus, 
God of the Pole Star North, and South, and his 
abode. I am giving this Symbol and Sign with 
interpretation and proofs fully, because in my 
lecture at Chatham, at the Mid-Kent Masters' 
Lodge, seeing it used on their stationery, I gave a 
short explanation of it, but there was one Brother 
who doubted my decipherment. And I see that 
it is also the jewel of the Hendre Lodge. I there- 
fore thought it incumbent on myself to bring for- 
ward conclusive and critical proofs now. Although 
it is used as a Sacred Symbol by the Jews, it was 
brought on from the old Stellar Cult. The Jews 
left out the " All-seeing Eye," and, therefore, tried 
to convert it into a Symbol of Horus of the Double 
Horizon, or Ihuh, in their terminology, but the 
original had the dot or eye in the centre. It was 
never intended to be a Sign or Symbol of Horus 
of the Double Horizon originally. It was a Symbol 
of the abode of Horus, God of the North and South, 
God of the All-seeing Eye, and proof of this is the 
fact that it has the phonetic signification of sb aau 
— m Egyptian, " Abode of Stars," or " Subdivision 
of the Celestial World," which was situated at the 
North. You will find this in the list of Ideographs 
of Bunsen's Dictionary, p. 497. (Fig. 46.) That 
alone is a sufficient proof. It might be translated 
as " The Abode or House of Horus " in one phase 


—i.e. Paradise. You have " Hendre " portrayed 
in its centre, so that must be your representation, 
terrestrially, of the Celestial— very appropriate. 

Sometimes you will only find one Triangle with 
a dot or a star at the apex, as in Fig. 47. This 
also is an Ideograph for Horus, God of the Pole 
Star North. All the above forms belong to the 
Stellar Cult people and not to any other. In 
Fig. 48 the Triangle of Horus has been brought 
on into the Christian doctrines ; the Symbol here 
given has been taken from the Lapiderian Gallery 

Fig. 46. Fig. 47. Fig. 48. 

of the Vatican (Lundy, p- 92) and the Cross added 
in the centre with the Ru. 

We will now trace how these Triangles were 
brought on from the Stellar and appropriated by 
the Solar people, when the latter Cult succeeded 
the former. The first combination of these two 
Triangles in the Solar is found in many countries, 
as in Fig. 49, sometimes surrounded by a circle, 
as in Fig. 50. This Double Triangle has been 
wrongly called " Solomon's Seal," but although 
still used as a Sacred Sign by the Hebrews, it 



" Ra Harmachus," or Am 
represents in EgVP;^'- ^^^^ horizon, from which 
or lu, the God of the Uo ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^, 

their Cult originated. 1 ^^^^ ^^^^ of 

of Horns, and ^l^Tcu^^ therefore >t is more 
Hortis only in the Solar W ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

*- a h-dred t o-nd - o^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

This form °' f °°^^„,i,ted from these other 
should always be differen .^ ^^^^^^ 

,^o. Although the symbol -nj-^ ^^.^^^^ 

b, a crossing and -«™^J,„,erpretation ,s 
superimposed on the other, yet 

FIG. 50- 
Fig. 49- 

, these two Triangles, Figs. 42 and 
differem. In *^!«j; ^^ ,he same, that these 

43, the interpreted meamng ^^^^ „^ 

Z symbols. -/;;rpl tars North and 
T.G.A.O.T.U God of the P ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ 

South, and belong to the .^ .^ ^„ 

whereas m the form of * g ^^ ^^^^^^ 

early Solar Symbol, and an I^og P ^^^ ^^ 
Go/ of the Double Hon^;^-^,;^ ,ook place 
goes to prove that P^gtess^ve « ^^ 


one, the same Symbols being made use of in many 

Another very interesting proof that this Symbol 
belongs to the God of the Double Horizon, and 

The Idol Tanciayudhaswami. 
Fig. 51. 

that it is an early Solar Symbol and not Stellar, 
may be deduced from a very interesting paper 
read before the Dorset Masters' Lodge by Bro. 
Herbert Bradley, C.S.I., P.Dis.G.M. Madras, in 


which he gives the photograph of what he calls 
the Idol Tandayudhaswami (Dorset Masters' 
Lodge Transactions, 1910-11), in which this 
Double Triangle is depicted on the idol's back sur- 
rounded by a circle (Fig. 51). This, therefore, 
is a Symbolic representation of " Atum "-Horus, in 
the form of Atum-Iu — the first God of the Solar 
Quit under several names in many countries. Bro. 

Seal made by Caste Hindoos. 
Fig. 52. Fig. 53. 

Bradley has also given an interesting photograph 
of a Seal used by Caste Hindoos in making Caste 
Marks (see Figs. 52 and 53), in which appears the 
original Double Triangle with the eye in the centre, 
symbolic of God of the Pole Star North and South. 
Therefore, whatever cult these people profess now, 
Hindoo or otherwise, they are direct descendants 
of the old Stellar Cult people — this, their most 
sacred sign, stamps them as such. (I wish to 
express my sincere thanks to Bros. Herbert Bradley 



and Sherren, P.G. Sec. Dorset, for permission to 
reproduce these illustrations.) 

Another form, or combination, of the Triangle 
must be especially interesting to Welshmen, be- 
cause you find it so often portrayed in Wales, and 
this was a Sacred Symbol amongst the Druids. 
It is found all over the world where the Solar 
Cult existed. It is the Triangle with the Swastika 
in the centre, Fig. 54, which is another Ideo- 
graph for Horus as God of the Four Quarters, or 

Fig. 54. 

Fig. 55. 

Fig. 56. 

God of the Double Horizon, and is frequently 
associated with the Symbols, Figs. 55 and 56, 
which have the phonetic value of lu, or lau. Three 
feathers, or rods, or rays of light ; this was also 
one of the most sacred signs amongst the Druids 
or Solar Cult people. It is another Ideograph 
for Horus under the name of lu or lau, or Ea or 
Aiu, God of the Double Horizon. There are 
various names throughout the world for this 
Symbol. It was also the symbol for the name 
of Egypt, as may be seen in Pierrot's Dictionary, 
page 754. (Fig. 57.) 


It must be especially interesting to Welshmen 
because these feathers, or rods, or rays of light, 
represent the feathers adopted " as totemic badge " 
for the Prince of Wales. He not only wears 
these feathers as Prince of Wales, but because 
they are also the Sign and Symbol of " The Prince 
or King of Egypt," as they are the Ideographic 
Symbol for Egypt. Then, again, it is the Ideo- 
graph for lu, or lau, who was the son of the 
God Atum. So here we have a curious and 
interesting fact, namely, the Prince of Wales is 

Fig. 57. Fig. 58. 

the Son of our Earthly King, so he represents in 
a terrestrial form lu, the son of his father Atum, 
in a Celestial or Spiritual form, this sacred Sign 
or Symbol being common to each. This has never 
been explained or deciphered by any one but 
myself, and there are some interesting hypotheses 
associated with this, which I am unable to discuss 
in our Masonic Lodge, and I am quite sure His 
Royal Highness is not acquainted with these facts 
or the real origin of his " Three feathers." 

I wish particularly to draw attention to the 
Symbol of the Swastika, Fig. 58, for three 


reasons. First because our old Brothers used it, 
and the Operative Masons still have this Symbol 
in their ceremonies ; next because this sign was 
at a later period converted into the Cross which 
our Brothers of the i8° use (see how this con- 
version took place in " Signs and Symbols of 
Primordial Man "), and because the interpreta- 
tion given by the Operative Masons for this Sign 
is not correct — in fact, quite wrong. The Opera- 
tive Masons were originally " The Companions " 
of the 17th Nome of Upper Egypt, and were 
Stellar Cult people ; probably some later genera- 
tions adopted the Solar Cult, and thus mixed the 
signs, but retained the true and original Ritual. 
Some of the exponents of Operative Masonry say 
that the Swastika is a Symbol of Axial Rotation, 
and refers to the Pole Star and the rotation of the 
Great Bear around it ; that it symbolizes the Great 
Ruler of the Universe, who alone was stationary 
and stable as the North Star, while all the rest 
of the universe revolves around Him ! 

This Symbol or Sign does not mean anything of 
the kind. It is a pure theory without any founda- 
tion in fact, except imagination, and I challenge 
any Operative Mason to bring forward any facts 
to prove and support their theory. 

In its original form the Swastika is a symbol 
of the Four Quarters of Heaven. It is a typical 
figure of the Heaven that was founded on the 


Four corners, " according to the measure of a 
man" (Rev. xxi. 17), and its origin was derived 
from the human figure. The proof of this was 
found in a Prehistoric Grave at Nagada, in Egypt. 
On one of the seal Cylinders we have depicted the 
primitive form, which was two human figures 
crossed. These figures are depicted as in 
Fig. 59. The four limbs, which eventually 
became the four feet, or four legs, were at first 
the two arms and two legs of the human figure. 
This is the divine man whose image was extended 

Fig. 59. 

Fig. 60. 

crosswise on the universe as a type of creation, 
and who was Atum in the character of lu, the Son, 
in the early Solar Cult. From these two figures 
other two figures were blended, representing there- 
from the Four Quarters of Heaven. As proof 
of this there is still to be seen a stone at Meigle, 
in Perthshire, with these four figures forming a 
Swastika, a photograph of which is given in " Signs 
and Symbols of Primordial Man." Each quarter 
was given, or assigned, to one of the four Brothers 
of Horus, who were the four attributes represent- 


ing the four Supports of Heaven. If further proof 
be necessary, it may be found in the Ancient 
Mexican Calendar, in the form of the Swastika. 
On each arm of this is the name of the four 
Brothers of Horus, who were the four Supports 
of Heaven, when first depicted in the form of a 
Square, in Primary Solar Cult, or when Heaven 
was first divided into four quarters by our old 
Brothers, who were the Astro-Mythologists of old 

Another form of the Swastika which is found in 
many countries, India and Cornwall especially, is 
Fig. 60, which is another portrayal of the form 
we find in Mexico. The four lines or uprights, 
having the same length as each arm, represent the 
four supports, or Brothers of Horus, as the four 
supports of the four quarters, which proves the 
truth of this decipherment. 

This Triangle, then, with the Swastika in the 
centre is a Symbol for Horus, God of the Four 
Quarters, or God of the Double Horizon, and has 
nothing to do with the symbolism of God of the 
North Pole, or of axial rotation, as the Operative 
Masons explain. I have brought forward some 
existing proofs which cannot, I think, leave any 
doubt in your minds. I have explained this 
Symbol fully, because it is so frequently found in 
Wales, which was one of the last places, if not the 
last place, where the Druids existed in these Isles, 


where they lived and practised the old Solar Cult 
they had brought with them from Egypt. 

Another form or Symbol for Heaven was the 
square, Fig. 6i. The reason being that the 
Egyptians, in their progressive evolution from 
the division of Heaven into North and South, now 
added East and West, thus forming the Heavens 
into four Quarters, or a Square, by means of the 
Swastika figure. As already shown, there were 
two human figures, Right and Left, so they formed 
a Right and Left Swastika, as Figs. 62 and 63. 

I I 

Fig. 61. 

Fig. 62. 

Fig. 63. 

They crossed the two human figures, and if these 
two Swastikas be crossed they form a perfect 
Square, with four Quarters. 

In India and other places, where we find the 
early Solar Cult existing, these two Swastikas are 
frequently found together as Right and Left. As 
by a Square they portrayed the Heavens, so by 
another Square they depicted the Earth. Thus, 
placing the two squares end to end, we arrive 
at the form in which all their Temples were 
built and are built, after the primary Circular 


form had been given up. They placed a 
treble cube in the centre to mark the division 
between Heaven and Earth. On the top of the 
Cube was a circle of gold, within this the Sacred 
Triangle, with Ideographic Symbols at each corner, 
signifying the names of the Primary Trinity, or 
the Three Grand Originals, which all Royal Arch 
Masons will recognize (see Fig. 64). This 
double square end to end is the true form of our 
Lodges, and the above is the reason why we have 
them in this form, and also the reason why the 

Fig. 64. 

Fig. 65. 

R.A.M.'s have the Cube in the centre and why 
the Irish Masons still have " the Cube " in the 
Centre of their Lodge. Originally these two 
degrees were one. 

One of the most interesting Symbols is the 
Circle with a point in the centre (Fig. 65). For 
the original of this we must return to the old wise 
Brothers of Egypt ; the Mystery Teachers of the 
Stellar Cult, although it was afterwards brought on 
in the Solar, who had worked out the whole of 
these Astronomical observations. It was previously 


stated that the Pole Star North was symbolized by 
the one All-seeing Eye, also called the Great Judge 
of All ; also that the dot or Star at the summit 
of a Cone, or Triangle, was the Ideograph for 
Horus, God of the Pole Star North. The point 
in the centre of a Circle is equal to the point at 
the top of the Triangle, and this Glyph is equiva- 
lent to the Eye ; the two are synonymous. In 
this circle of the Pole Star there were seven attri- 
butes, called the Seven Glorious Ones, grouped 
together in the constellation of the Lesser Bear, 
revolving around the Most High, the Great Judge, 
the " All-seeing Eye," symbolized by the Pole 
Star, which was the centre of the circumpolar 
enclosure of Heaven, or Paradise, situated at the 
'North. The Eye, or this dot, or Pole Star, in the 
centre of the circle, therefore, became a Symbol 
or type of the eternal, because, apparently, it never 
changed with time. It was the earliest type of 
the supreme intelligence which gave the Law, which 
was unerring, just, and true, and it became a 
standpoint in the heavens for the mind of man 
to rest on at the centre, and radiate to the circum- 
ference — a point within a circle from which a M.M. 
could not err. It was a type or Symbol of the 
Just One, or the Just God, who gave the law, 
the Great Architect of the Universe, just and un- 
erring. We have made a bad innovation in our 
Ritual, because this was not the place where one 


learnt the secrets of a M.M., and this has been 
done, apparently, because the true gnosis of the 
Ancient Ritual of Egypt was not known to those 
who compiled our Ritual in its present form. 

The old Egyptians formed an Ideographic 
Symbol called Amenta to teach the Mysteries, and 
it was here, in Amenta, that one learnt the true 
secrets of a M.M. In the i8° there is a room 
corresponding to this of the old Egyptians. You 
have been told that you travelled from the East 
to the West to learn the genuine secrets. That 
is so ; there you entered the Amenta in the West, 
travelled back to the East, and came out with all 
the true and genuine secrets of a M.M. This point 
within the circle was their circumpolar Paradise 
or Heaven, where you will all be received in spirit 
form after this earthly life, but you must possess 
all the secrets and passwords before you can enter 
there, according to the Egyptian Wisdom, and 
these were learnt in Amenta. 

The Gavel (Fig. 12), the emblem or symbol 
of the W.M., is a Symbol of Power and 
Might, and its associations are very important. 
It was the original sacred sign used amongst primi- 
tive man, and originated with the little Pygmy in 
Africa. This, their sacred sign, is found in many 
countries, including Wales, Cornwall, France, 
America, and in Asia. Originally it was just three 
sticks crossed as in Fig. 10. Amongst the little 


Pygmies it means " The Great One," " The 
Chief." If we trace the development of this to 
our present day we find three distinct evolutions 
of it. Amongst some of the Nilotic Negroes, who 
followed the Pygmy all over the world, and who 
are a higher developed type of man, they converted 
this Symbol into a double cross by placing the two 
sticks in a different way, as in Fig. ii. It is 
used by these Totemic people as one of their most 
sacred signs, and has been adopted by those who 
followed, down to our present Christian and other 


Fig. 66. Fig. 67. 

Cults, as one of their sacred signs. It is used 
by our Brothers of the Higher Degrees. Amongst 
the Stellar Cult people it was carried on and used 
in its original form (Fig. 10), and is an Egyptian 
Ideograph for Amsu— i.e. the first name given to 
the risen Horus ; or, as Christians would say, the 
Risen Christ. In a later period we have another 
symbol added to this, namely, the Egyptian Ru (see 
Figs. 66 and 67), which represents the mouth of a 
fish, and is an Ideograph for " An." It is the symbol 
which represents the giving birth to water as the 
Life of the World, and the Saviour who comes 


to Egypt by water, as the water of the inundation, 
or overflow of the Nile. When the ground was 
parched and dry, the overflow of the inundation 
occurred, and thus brought life, gladness, and 
plenty to all those who depended on the fructifica- 
tion of the soil, cultivated to maintain life, repre- 
senting symbolically " The Water of Life," " The 
Saviour of Life," etc., and in conjunction with 
Fig. lo would represent originally the Great 
One, the Great Saviour of Life, on which all must 
depend. Various forms of this Symbol are to 




Fig. 68. 


Fig. 69. 

be found in iWales, Devon, and Cornwall, and in 
other countries ; some of these forms are as 
Fig. 68, but all have the same origin and 

When stones took the place of sticks, and the 
knowledge of hafting had been attained — first 
amongst the Nilotic Negroes— some of these 
Nilotic Negroes represented this sign by a stone 
axe, or double-headed hammer, as in Fig. 69, to 
represent the Great One, the Great Prince. This 
became of great importance, and amongst some 
tribes a special hut was built for it. The Priest 


and Great Chief were the only people allowed to 
see it. This custom is still extant amongst the 
Nilotic Negroes in Africa. 1 give here two copper 
sacred axes which originally belonged to two native 
chiefs or priests on the West Coast of Africa (a 
and b) ; also some ancient sacred copper axes of 

Sacred Axes. 
Fig. 70. 

the Egyptians (c). In the Stellar Cult it 
became one of the Symbols representing Horus. 
" The Great Chief of the Hammer " was one of 
his names ; " The Cleaver of the Way," " The 
God of the Double Power, or Double Equinox," 
were other names by which he was known. 

n l iji. ; i» ««M t«iu Lr i M »'i 

■ ill t!f 

'^s I j II ^ 





Perhaps the most important portrayal of this 
Symbol which can be found anywhere is that 
depicted on a Chaldean intaglio of green jasper in 
the Louvre, Paris, because it proves so much when 
correctly deciphered. See Fig. 71. It shows 
that : I, it has been carried on from the Stellar into 
the Solar Cult in its primitive form ; 2, that in 
each case it identifies the same God under different 
Cults and different names ; 3, it also shows that 
the Chaldeans, Babylonians, and Assyrians ob- 
tained their cult from the Egyptians — all this is 
very important ; and 4, we find the same Symbol 
depicted in some churches in the West of England, 
especially in Cornwall, identically the same as is 
found on this intaglio. In the centre (i) we see 
depicted " Shamash " — their God — as rising from 
the under-world through the Eastern Gate (2) — 
that is in the morning — the Eastern Horizon. He 
is depicted between the Egyptian 
Hieroglyphic for the Horizon (2), 
which is contained between the two 
Pillars or Poles of North and South 
(3 and 4), which are supported 
by Hu and Sa (5 and 6) — these are attri- 
butes. Hu denotes matter. Sa signifies Spirit — 
i.e. the creation in blood and Spirit. The two 
Pillars North and South denote that it is the 
God of the North and South, as well as now East 
and West— the God of the Four Quarters. On the 


left side of this picture we have the Sacred Signs 
and Symbols (7), brought on from the Stellar Cult, 
giving the Ideograph, which enables us to decipher 
and interpret the meaning of the picture. It will 
be noticed that all the figures as here portrayed 
are looking at the sacred name for the Risen 
Lord (7). This Symbol is interesting. I have 
already mentioned that the sign. Fig. 10, is the 
Ideograph for Amsu in the Stellar Cult ; the 
Risen Horus, or Horus in Spiritual form. This 
is the principal part of the Symbol. At the bottom 


Fig. 72. " Fig. 73. 

of this sign we have the Symbol Fig. 72, which, 
in sign language, reads "He descended." At the 
top you have the Symbol Fig. 7;^, which, in 
sign language, reads " He ascended." The God, 
as seen here, is issuing in the morning from the 
under-world ; it is the Risen Horus — Amsu, of 
the Stellar Cult, brought on into the earliest Solar. 
One arm is raised, the right, free and uplifted 
with the Flail in his hand, a Symbol of Power, 
Majesty, and Might. The other arm is not yet 
free, the left. He wears the Double Crown, Earthly 


and Spiritual. The three rays of light, seen on 
each arm, Fig. 74, denote his spiritual form, 
and give also the Ideograph for his name as that 
of Atum-Iu— the first God of the Solar Cult. 
Therefore, this figure is the first God of the Solar 
Cult, Atum-Iu, as the symbols prove, and is the 
same God Amsu-Horus brought on from the 
Stellar, and has the same Ideograph for his name. 
Here we have positive proof that the Chaldean, 
Babylonian, and Assyrian God, Shamash, is the 
Great God of the Double Horizon, or Double 

Fig. 74. Fig. 75. 

Equinox of the Egyptians, Atum-Iu in the earliest 
Solar, Amsu-Horus in the Stellar, the Ihuh of the 
Hebrews, Tandayudhaswami of the Hindoos, and 
the lu of the Welsh Druids. This Sign and 
Symbol, Fig. 75, you will find depicted on the 
stone walls of many old churches in the West of 
England, and the interpretation here is that it 
represents Christ in His Spiritual form in the 
Christian Cult. All one and the same Great God 
from the old Stellar to this day. 

The Cult of Horus of the Double Horizon is 


very important in tracing the evolution of religious 
conceptions and beliefs, as it gives the key to 
unlock the mysteries of the past. The Sphinx w^as 
cut out of the solid rock as an Ideographic Symbol 
to represent the passage of Horus from one 
Horizon to the other — symbolical, therefore, of 
Horus of the Double Horizon or Double Equinox, 
an early Solar Symbol and not Stellar. Thus these 
Signs and Symbols, with their true interpretation, 
will assist us to understand their true import, from 
the time they originally came into being down to 
the present, and why our old Brothers used them 
as representative Sacred Signs and Symbols in 
their Sign Language. 

In the form of the Axe, from the Stellar it was 
brought on in the Solar Cult as one of the Symbols 
to represent the Great God Ptah ; the Great 
Architect of the Universe was one of his names, 
but he was also called the Great Chief of the 
Hammer (see Ritual of Ancient Egypt). Figs. 76, 
']'], and 78 represent the God of the Axe in 
three forms. Fig. 76 represents Ramman, the 
God of the Axe of the Susians. The horns here 
signify Solar Descent. The hair and features are 
those of " The Suk " of Africa. The Axe denotes 
that he is " The God of the Axe," " The Cleaver 
of the Way " — i.e. the Egyptian Horus of the 
Double Horizon or Double Equinox. The Three 
Rods or Rays of Light denote his name as that 


of lu or lau. He is therefore the Atum-Iu of the 
Egyptians. He is supported by his Four Brothers 

Ramman, God of the Axe of the Susians. 
Fig. 76. 

— i.e. the Four Brothers or Children of Horus 
here portrayed in human form for the first time, 
as in the Stellar Cult these were represented by 


Ramman, God of the Axe of the Chaldeans. 
Fic. 77. 


Zootypes : Man, Lion, Ox, and Eagle. The hair 
and features of these are the same as those of the 
" Suk " of Africa, from whom they descended. 

Fig. Ji represents Ramman, God of the Axe 
of the Chaldeans. We have here a different type 
of man from the Ramman -Susian ; he wears a 
" conical hat and long robe," and his hair and 
features show a later type of evolution ; yet we 
find that he is also God of the Axe ; the interpreta- 
tion of all the Symbols portrayed here proves 
that these people had the same Cult or religion. 
Ramman, the central figure, is shown as coming 
forth from the under -world, one foot on the mount 
of the Eastern Horizon ; above, we have portrayed 
two Pillars, North and South, and two Horizons, 
East and West, with the Sun depicted as rising 
and setting in each. Therefore God of the North 
and South, and God of the East and West. Below 
this we have, on the left, the Ideograph " He 
ascended " or " He has risen," and on the right 
we have the Star with eight rays, with the centre, 
which is a Symbol or Ideograph for the Chief or 
Great One as the 8th — i.e. 7 -J- i, which was Stellar 
and Luna first, and the earliest Solar form before 
Ptah, who had the Cycle of 9. Below we see the 
under-world depicted with the Solar orb traversing 
it. This is Atum-Iu, God of the Double Equinox 
or Double Horizon of Egypt, the same as we have 
depicted with the other Gods. 


In Fig. y8, representing the Mexican God 
of the Axe, Tepoxtecatl, it will be seen that the 
Symbolism in all is identically the same, and proves 

Tepoxtecatl, God of the Axe of the Mexicans. 
Fig. 78. 

that all these old Stellar, or Solar, Cult people 
originated and came from Egypt. These Cults 
were carried out of Egypt by our old Brothers 
to many parts of the world, and the remains of 


these found at the present day demonstrate my 
claims as to the origin and evolution of the human 
race. It proves that our Brotherhood originated 
from the old Mystery Teachers of Egypt ; the 
proofs brought forv/ard are irrefutable, both as 
regards the Origin and Evolution of Man and the 
Origin of our Brotherhood. In this case, how- 
ever, it will be seen how ancient these people were. 
The Axe here is made of stone, and not metal. 

The proofs of these things are to be found 
all over the world where these old Stellar and 
Solar Cult p^iople lived. Many stones and build- 
ings delineating the single or double Axe are to 
be seen in this country in Devon, Cornwall, in the 
Dolmens in Brittany, in Temples in America, and 
other parts of the world. At Knossos Evans found 
a Temple in the form of a double square, with 
three cubes in the centre, one surmounting the 
other, with this axe Ideograph on each, repre- 
senting figuratively the Great One of the North 
—i.e. Horus ; the Great One of the South— i.e. 
Set ; the Great One of the Centre— i.e. Shu— the 
three Grand Originals, as in Fig. 4. 

It will thus be seen that the symbol of the Axe, 
or gavel, has been handed down from the remotest 
antiquity, but the symbohsm has not changed 
through all the evolutions of the human race. 
The few Symbols dealt with above go to 
show : — 


1. That our old Brothers believed in one Great 
God, the Great Architect of the Universe. 

2. That through all the various Cults that have 
succeeded the one to the other, up to the present 
day, it has always been the same God— the same 
Great Architect of the Universe. 

3. That the use of different names during the 
evolution of the different races of mankind does 
not alter the Spiritual facts ; that the same Signs 
and Symbols, representing the G.A. of the U. 
and His attributes, have been used from the first 
to the last, under whatever name, and these are 
numerous. I have found some 1,500, and there 
are probably more. 

It is interesting to understand why these 
Symbols and Signs are found in many parts of 
the world at the present day, and still used, not 
only by us, but some by the Hebrews, some by the 
Hindoos, many by the Chinese, Japanese, and 
others found amongst the Totemic peoples in many 
places in the world. Without knowing the Astro - 
Mythology and Eschatology, and Ritual of Ancient 
Egypt, we can never understand their meaning, or 
decipherment, or give a true explanation of what 
these old Signs and Symbols are. One can only 
guess, and give theories, which nine times out 
of ten are incorrect. It must be acknowledged 
that all these could not have been developed by 
several peoples — in many places in the earth, 


separately or independently ; they are too uni- 
versal. There must have been one common centre. 
There was, and that was old Egypt. From Egypt, 
or along the Valley of the Nile, man originated, 
and spread throughout this earth. In old Egypt 
he began to grow in stature and knowledge, and 
from primitive faith man developed the higheist 
religious doctrines. At first he had not the 
language as we have now ; many of his ideas 
were expressed in Signs and Symbols, and it is 
clearly and distinctly evident that these were used 
by these old Mystery Teachers to represent the 
Great Architect of the Universe, and His various 
attributes, and the doctrines of final things, when 
they had no language of words to express their 
thoughts as we have now. 

As the old Egyptians progressed in knowledge 
and wisdom, so exodes left and went to most parts 
of the world— at least, the Stellar Cuh people did 
— and many are extant at the present day, prac- 
tising and believing in the old Stellar doctrine. 
From the Stellar they developed into a higher 
evolution — the so-called Solar Cult — and these went 
to India, nearly all over Europe, landed at Yucatan 
in Central America, and travelled down as far as 
Peru. They were called the Incas there ; here 
in Europe we called them the Druids. The 
Hindoos were an early exodus of these. The 
Hebrews or Jews were also an early Solar exodus. 


We have in our forms and ceremonies, Signs and 
Symbols, the cult of these old Wise Men of Egypt, 
and it is not difficult to trace back how we came, 
and how all our Signs and Symbols have been 
brought on. We must not think, as some people 
do, that they worshipped these Signs and Symbols, 
because they did not ; we will take as an instance 
this so-called Idol, Tandayudhaswami, " if this was 
a Figure or Symbol of the Great God Atum," as 
lu, it must have been Atum they worshipped and 
not the Symbol. 

The old faith has never died, and we Free- 
masons have it in the purest form, with the addi- 
tions which indicate the progress of humanity. 
Although we use the old Signs and Symbols as 
ancient types, we have replaced these by a 
language unknown to our old Brotherhood, in 
which we have developed a higher Spiritual 

It is only within the last few years we have 
been able to read the Hieroglyphics. Even now 
we have very few students who can read and under- 
stand their ancient Astro-Mythology, and the 
evolution from this into their Eschatology, or their 
doctrine of final things. No country has yet 
attained again that high state of knowledge of 
Astronomy and Mathematics that these old Mystery 
Teachers possessed. They kept their wisdom to 
one class— these in Egyptian were called the " Hir- 


Seshta/' the Mystery Teachers, their High Priests 
— and much of their knowledge was communicated 
in sign language. Their Sacred Signs and 
Symbols were those they reverenced and treasured 
mostly ; hence, from one cult these were brought 
on into the next, sometimes altered somewhat, 
either added to, or something taken from, to mark 
the progress of the evolution of humanity. These 
things can still be traced with unerring fidelity by 
those who read the writings on the wall — up to our 
present generation. All the faiths and cults at the 
present day can be traced back to old Egypt and 
nowhere else. It is an object-lesson to remind 
us that without the belief in the Divine Creator 
our Brotherhood could not remain cemented 
together. That is the one point above all others 
we believe in, although under different terminology, 
and He is always The One and For Ever the Same 
Divine Master, under whatever Signs or Symbols 



A Lecture delivered before the Humber Installed Masters' 
Lodge, No. 2494, Hull, on November 7, 1913. 

As you are well aware, of late years more especi- 
ally, many students of Freemasonry have arrived 
at the conclusion that our Brotherhood must have 
originated far away back in past ages, because, 
since the facilities of inter -communication have 
become so easy, many who have travelled 
much have found in India, China, Japan, Africa, 
America, and other places, many of our sacred 
Signs and Symbols connected with the religious 
rites and ceremonies of the old inhabitants of 
those places, but have been unable to form any 
definite conclusions as to the why and wherefore. 
Past and present writers on Freemasonry have 
ignored all the origins of our Signs and Symbols, 
because they were, and are, unacquainted with 
the key to unlock the Mystery, and there are no 



writings, or history, to help them that they can 
read. But the origin of Freemasonry dates back 
to the time when these Signs and Symbols were 
first formed— six hundred thousand years ago is a 
low estimate. 

One of the earliest Temples of the old Brother- 
hood was established at Edfu, in Egypt, by the 
Priests of the Stellar Cult. The old Totemic 
and Hero-Cult Nilotic Negroes had, through evolu- 
tion, established this cult, with its beginnings of 
the doctrine of final things-' They came up from 
the south of the Nile Valley, where they had 
already formed a secret society, calling themselves 
" the followers of Horus " (or " the black- 
smiths "). Descendants" of these still exist in the 
Nile Valley — "the Kaverondo." They brought 
with them the knowledge of working in metals 
and of brickmaking and building. The Gemi tribe 
of these were the religious part of this secret 
society, learned already in astronomical observa- 
tions and secret doctrines. 

Horus, their Great Chief in Hero-Cult, was now 
symbolized as " The Great God of the North and 
South." Another of his titles was " The Chief 
Artificer in Metals." " The Great Chief of the 
Hammer " and many other titles were gradually 
added as evolution progressed for the G.G. of 
the U. (We have substituted T.C. for Horus — 
Behutet— which latter was the Egyptian word for 


the first artificer in metals.) These people estab- 
lished the city of Edfu as their centre, and built 
Temples for the G.A.U. throughout Egypt, after 
driving out or exterminating the Pygmy and 
Masaba Negroes, the original inhabitants (see 
"Origin and Evolution of Primordial Man"). 
Thus a brotherhood in two phases was estab- 
lished, the first being a religious sect, with their 
Priests, having the astronomical and other know- 
ledge ; and the second being the Builders, skilled 
as artificers and brickmakers. Combined, these 
were called the Mesniti or Mesintu, or the followers 
of Horus, only another name, as the Christians 
are called the followers of Christ. From the 
Ritual of Ancient Egypt, still extant, we find that 
the old Priests founded and established the Seven 
Mysteries, afterwards called the Lesser Mysteries, 
based upon Astro -Mythology. These were after- 
wards increased to twelve in the Stellar Cult. 
Of these, the first two were communicated to " the 
Builders," who were now established in the seven- 
teenth Nome of Upper Egypt. The Ari by name, 
and those who were initiated into the First and 
Second Mysteries, were taken for the builders of 
their Temples. 

These Builders were divided into Craftsmen 
and Companions, and a Priest was placed over 
them, and was initiated into the Third Mystery, 
but he was not Operative. These Builders of the 



Temples were so initiated because the Priests 
wished to keep the secrets of the Temples, and no 
others were ever allowed to build or repair their 
sacred places during the Stellar Cult. These were 
the original Operative Masons, the descendants 
of whom still exist, and, although these now have 
a division of so-called seven degrees, which they 
constructed out of the two mysteries, the original 
was simply the First and Second Mysteries. I 
think you will see that I am correct when I say 
that they are still divided into two moieties, " The 
Blue " and " The Red," also " The first four 
Degrees " work with their hands, the others " work 
with their heads " — these are known by the two 
names of Craftsmen and Companions — so really 
the old division is still kept. The Sacred Signs 
and Symbols founded and established by the 
learned priesthood had, however, another meaning 
and definition from that which the Operatives were 
taught — " A Sign Language " of their own, and 
in a most profound and religious sense, which 
was only known to the religious brotherhood, or 
their Priests, and not to the Builders. It was from 
these learned Priests that Speculative Masonry took 
its origin. Thus you will see the origin of the so- 
called Operative and Speculative Masons, of which 
Anderson and all those Masonic writers who have 
followed him, were ignorant. I do not propose 
to follow the evolution of the Operative Masons 


now, although I am well acquainted with all, and 
could prove from photographs of some of the 
Humboldt Fragments that they had their workings 
in Central America the same as they have 

During the Stellar Cult, which lasted about 
three hundred thousand years, the Old Egyptians 
attained a high state of knowledge, and sent 
colonies nearly all over the world ; the proof 
of this can be demonstrated by the remains 
of their old Temples which have been found, 
and also their skeletons buried in the thrice 
bent position, and with a definite class of 
implements buried with them. Proof of this 
is afforded by the translation of an inscrip- 
tion found at Dendera, which also goes to show 
how far advanced were the Stellar Cult people 
in arts and writings. The literal translation as 
the Egyptian words stand is : — 

" Was found foundation great in Dendera, in 
writings old in rolls of kids in the time of the 
followers of Horus, was found between the wall 
of brick of the South part in the reign of the 
King of the Sun-beloved the son of Sun Lord of 
diadems Phiops." 

This, when translated into modern English, 
would read : " That in the great foundation, in 
Dendera, between the walls of brick at the 
Southern part of the Temple, were found decayed 


rolls of parchment with writings thereon of the 
followers of Horus." 

I bring forward this evidence that you may not 
be carried away by enthusiasm, which some 
Brethren declare I am exceedingly liable to in 
my own case, and that I put forward theories 
instead of facts. But let me assure you that I 
belong to an honourable profession where we are 
trained to think, reason, and sift the objective 
and subjective proofs to the bottom. The facts I 
lay before you are objective and capable of proof. 

The Stellar Cult was followed by the Lunar, 
and then by the Solar, and finally by the Christian 
doctrines. At the time of the zenith of the Solar 
Cult, at the latest, it is certain that they had estab- 
lished ten more Mysteries, called the Greater 
Mysteries, and worked out their Eschatology, or 
doctrine of final things, and had established their 
Sign Language and rituals for these. I do not know 
how, or why, all these have been divided up into 
thirty -three degrees as we have done, because in 
all, the Stellar and Solar added together, I can 
only make twenty-two. In the Stellar there were 
seven at first, afterwards five more were added.' 
In the Solar ten more were added, but many of 
these were a different form of the Stellar. It was 
an attempt to blot out the former cult, but at the 

■ The Stellar Mysteries were, however, afterwards subdivided 
into twenty-four. 


same time really bringing it on under a new name, 
changing the original names by substituting others. 
We in this Lodge have the old Stellar Mysteries, 
but when you come to the eighteenth degree and 
upwards, you change into the Solar with much 
mixture of the Stellar, and some of the Christian 
added, so you may be quite certain that ours 
up to the R.A. are the Stellar or oldest, and, 
although our traditional history only dates from 
Solomon's Temple, you can be certain that it existed 
thousands of years before the time of Solomon. 

Let me here explain how you may always still 
distinguish the old Stellar Cult buildings from the 
Solar, and those which followed after. Wherever 
you find the remains of two circles, these were 
Stellar Cult Temples. They were built with twelve 
monoliths, or twelve pillars for each circle, and 
were pre-zodiacal, indicating the divisions of 
heaven into twelve divisions of the North and 
twelve divisions of the South ; these were two 
separate circles. The Solar Cult people always 
built with three circles (or in the form of 
a Double Square), one representing the North 
and another the South. The third was placed 
between, the two circles bisecting each other like 
links in a chain. These divided heaven into thirty- 
six divisions. I do not mean you to understand 
that only twelve stones were used in building each 
Temple. There were as many used as in other 


erections, but there were twelve monoliths, or 
pillars of special import. These were placed out- 
side the walls, sometimes inside the Temple. 

The primary formation of the Temples was 
round, and sometimes two were built together, 
one North and one South. These were built when 
Set was Primary God of the South. An example 
of one of these can still be seen at Peking ; it 
is there called The Temple of Heaven, the oldest 
form found in China. Another exists in Central 
America, known as the Temple of Set, at Tepe- 
yollott, Mexico, as depicted in the Borgian Codex. 
The formation of this Temple is round, and on 
the top is one of the Syrnbols or Ideographic 
names of Set— the God of the South. These two 
Temples— one from China and the other from 
Mexico— show that the first form of the Temples 
was round, and that they were dedicated to Set — 
the God of the South Pole, previous to Horus — ^the 
God of the North. They also show how widely 
distributed these old Primary Stellar Mythos 
people were, and that the cult was one and the 
same all over the world at this time. From evi- 
dences contained in the Ritual, this Primary 
Cult lasted about fifty-two thousand years before 
the change to the North took place. Disbelievers 
should estimate how long it must have taken man 
to migrate these great distances, found communi- 
ties, and erect Temples. Curiously enough, the 


Symbol or Ideograph for the name of Set is still 
used on some of the Government stamps and 
official paper of some of the South American 
States. In this country we now call it the Dimce's 
Cap, or Fool's Cap. 

The Chinese were Stellar Cult people originally, 
but now there is much mixture of the Solar Cult 
with these. The reason why they built in these 
two circles was because they divided the heavens 
into two divisions of North and South, portrayed 
as two circles, as I have already stated. These 
Temples therefore represented their circumpolar 
paradise, within which " the house " of the G. A. 
of the U. was situated. Remains of these two 
circles can be found in many parts of the world 
where the old Stellar Cult people went. In this 
country I have recently examined some on Dart- 
moor, Devonshire. Of course, you would not expect 
to find anything but remains here now. We have 
passed through several glacial epochs since these 
were built, and they would be destroyed by the ice 
and snow. You will also find three circles in many 
places. These belong to the Solar Cult people. 
You will find this fully set forth in the second 
edition of " Signs and Symbols of Primordial 

In these circular Temples the altar was circular, 
and placed in the centre of the building. There 
were in the primary Temples five steps, afterwards 


seven steps, leading up to this. In most cases the 
Temple was open at the top to the vaults of heaven, 
so that a " Plumb Line " might come straight 
from the Pole Star to the central altar. The seven 
steps represent in the Egyptian " The Khuti," 
or the seven Glorious Ones— attributes of the G. A. 
of the U., whose house is situated within this cir- 
cumpolar enclosure. They also represent the seven 
Great Spirits — the seven Sciences — the seven Eyes 
— and many other sevens of the Scriptures. The 
twelve Camps, and the twelve Banners of the 
Children of Israel represent the original characters 
in the Stellar Astronomical Mythology, and were 
given first to the twelve Thrones, or divisions of 
heaven in the Stellar Cult, and in the Zodiac 
in the Solar. Thus, at first, they represented 
twelve Stellar Powers, and that is the reason we 
find the twelve Stones in these Circles. The 
original characters in the Astronomical Mytho- 
logy that were given the twelve Thrones, or Camps, 
with separate and distinctive Banners in Zootype 
form, in Egyptian are Set, Horus, Shu, Hapi, Ap- 
uat, Kabhsenuf, Amsta, Anup, Ptah, Atum, Sau, 
and Hu. These were the Kamite originals, brought 
on and converted into the Banners of the Twelve 
Camps, or Tribes, of Israel. The four principal 
Banners in the R.A.C., depicting the man, lion, ox, 
and eagle, took their origin from the four Brothers 
or Children of Horus. These are to be found 


all over the world wherever the Stellar Cult existed, 
and appear under various names. The Temples 
which were built after these were in the form of 
the so-called " double square "—in the form of 
our Lodges — and all Temples throughout the world, 
after the circular, were in that form, which has 
been retained ever since. 

Another distinctive character between the 
Stellar and Solar buildings was that all the old 
Stellar Cult people's buildings were Iconographic. 
By that I mean the G. A. of the U. and all His 
attributes were depicted on these Temples in a 
pre-human form — i.e. Zootype form. Men at this 
time had not yet learnt to portray the human form 
as human, and so these types were depicted as 
snakes, birds, and other Zootype forms. Whereas 
at the time of the Solar Cult all the attributes of 
the G. A. of the U. were portrayed in the human 
form. The transition stage was during the Lunar 
Cult. These are the differences which will enable 
you always to distinguish the one from the other, 
ever remembering that both built with Polygonal 
stones and monoliths. Another point I might 
mention is that the cement used by the old Stellar 
Cult people was much finer than that used by the 
Solar. Good examples of each are still extant 
in South Africa and Central and South America. 
The fineness of this cement has caused many 
writers and observers to state that there was no 


cement used ; but others, of more acute observa- 
tion, discovered that there was a very fine cement, 
which was composed of granite very finely ground, 
or of the same material as the principal stones 
were composed of. 

The Secrets of the Mysteries were to teach 
man how to live here on earth, how to die, and 
what he had to pass through after death before 
he could finally enter Paradise, founded on the 
belief of the death and disintegration of the 
Corpus, and the Resurrection of the Spiritual Body 
for eternity. The many eulogies that have been 
showered upon Sir Oliver Lodge and the Bishop 
of London, on account of their recent addresses, 
prove how very little is known of the Old Egyptian 
Eschatology. In neither of their addresses was 
there anything new. In fact, the beliefs they ex- 
pressed are as old as the Pygmies, as I have 
proved these primitive people believed in a 
Supreme Being, an after life, and propitiating the 
Spirits of their departed friends, as well as the 
elemental powers. During the time that elapsed 
from the origin of these Pygmies to that grand 
evolution of Eschatology of the old Hir-Seshta, 
they had trained Spiritual Clairvoyants to undergo 
Hypnotism and communicate with departed spirits. 
This is still practised by some men of the present 
day, but it is not given to every one. In fact, 
very few have sufficient courage and patience to 


attain the power, even if they have a good Spiritual 
Clairvoyant as the connecting intermediary, which 
is just as rare. Still, they do exist, and the laws 
of this do not clash with " science or religion 
—in fact, you must not only " be religious," but 
also " scientific " to attain this power in its desir- 
able form. Having gained that power, most 
secrets of the Celestial and Terrestrial worlds are 
available, or anything else that is right for one 
to learn. But there are many things beyond a 
certain point which cannot be explained for want 
of adequate language or word, and through lack 
of corresponding Symbol. But, as in the Egyptian 
Eschatology, it is possible to discover who are 
amongst the " blest," and who " have failed to 
be justified," and who have found that the balance, 
Maat, has weighed against them. It was under- 
stood that ** no bad people " on earth could ever 
attain this knowledge. It was only " the good 
people here " that have sufficient power to send 
the earthly living Spirit into the Circumpolar Para- 
dise situated at the North, and have communion 
with the Blessed there ; to be " Maa-Kheru," 
to come in and go out, and to whom all doors are 
open. The old High Priests of Egypt obtained 
much of their knowledge in this way, but through 
the past dark ages, since the downfall of the 
Egyptian Empire, the secrets have been known 
to only a very few. Scientists are now beginning 


to regain some of these secrets, thinking it is a new- 
phase in the further development of the human 
brain. But it is not ; it is old, and has been for- 
gotten by the general masses of Scientists and 
Priests. But the Ritual of Ancient Egypt will 
give more knowledge on this subject than all the 
present Scientists and Divines combined would 
dare to give, even if they had the knowledge. 

The wonderful manner in which these ancient 
ideas have been preserved and carried to distant 
parts of the world will be seen by a reference 
to Fig. 78, which represents Tepoxtecatl, the 
Mexican God of the Axe. From the Mendoza 
Codex, No. 13, we find that the Mexicans, 
when they began to spread beyond their Valley 
of Quauhnauac, made war on Tepoxtlan. 
They were told that this place was called 
" The Place of the Axe," and that Tepoxtecatl 
was the God of the Axe, a Great Seer of the 
Hammer. Fig. 78 is reproduced from the Mexican 
painting in the Biblioteca Nazionale, Florence, 
in which the Axe is depicted in two forms, one in 
his hand, a double axe, and a single axe in front 
of him. He wears the double crown. Earthly and 
Spiritual, and has the emblem of the God lu sup- 
ported by four pillars, representing the four 
brothers or Children of Horus ; the same is also 
symbolized on his banner. 

Fig. 79 represents the God of the Axe from 


Tinogasta, Argentina, called their Uracoc'ha. The 
same God is portrayed on the Monolithic Gate at 
Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, at the south end of the Lake 
Titicaca. Other names in South America, in 

Con Tiesi Uracocha, God of the Axe, from Tinogasta. 
Fig. 79. 

different States, are Tonapa, Tarapaca, Irma, and 
Iraya. These were all during the Stellar Cult. In 
the Solar the name was Tachacamac, equal to Atum- 
lu ; the full name in the Stellar Cult was Con Tiesi 


Uracocha. In this symbol his name is portrayed 
by the two feat^hers on his head. The Itheophallic 
Symbol, and Fan, denote a new life, the Spiritual. 
The Fan was used in the Egyptian Mysteries to 
signify a Spirit, and with the Itheophallic emblem 
denotes the Resurrection of the Spirit. The 
Christian Copts (Priests) still use this emblem, 
but we have lost it. The Axe is supported by the 
four Children of Horus, with the House of Heaven 
(also depicted on the Fan) and the House of Earth 
— i.e. The House of Earth and House of Eternity. 
Beneath are portrayed the two Poles or Pillars of 
the North and South, signifying that he is the God 
of the North and South. On the extreme right 
is the emblem of Sovereignty, Power, and 

In Fig. 80 is a symbol of the God of the Axe 
from Tepozteco, now in the Museum Trocadero. 
The symbols on the front of the Conical Hat give 
his name as lu, as also do the ear ornaments. 
The Masonic Apron which is here portrayed will 
be recognized quite readily. 

As the latest confirmation that the origin of 
these symbols came from Mother Egypt, I here 
give some linear writing, or ancient script, found 
by Dr. Morgan on a tablet in Egypt, which has 
never before been translated. I am pleased to have 
been able to accomplish this, and here give it for 
the first time since the destruction of Ancient 


God of the Axe of the Toltec, from Tepozteco. 
Fig. 8o. 


Egypt. The Script is reproduced in Fig. 8i, 
and, reading from right to left, may be thus 
deciphered : — 

Fig. 8i. 

A It is written. 

B Horus, God of the North and South. 

C Saviour of the World. 

D Beloved. 

E Lord (or Son). 

F lu. 

G He descended, He ascended. 

H Amsu ; the Risen Horus for Eternity. 

Translated into the modern idiom, it would 
therefore read : — 

"It is written Horus, God of the North and 
South, Saviour of the World, the beloved Son or 
Lord lu. He descended ; He ascended. He is 
now Amsu, the risen Lord in Spirit form, and 
reigns for Eternity." 

This form of writing is that which was used 
during the time they were converting the pure 
Hieroglyphic into Hieratic, which was a gradual 
change, and must liave taken a considerable time. 
A and D are Hieratic, and others the pure old 


Hieroglyphics. The sign B, the Ideograph for 
Horns, God of the North and South, was in this 
form used in the Stellar Cult only. Here we 
have the two Poles or Pillars of the North and 
South supported by Hu and Sa — the two supports, 
with the Ideograph Triangle for the name of Horus 
between the Pillars at the top. 

There are not any symbols of the two Horizons 
here, because this was written during the Stellar 
Cult, and the two Horizons did not come into 
being until the early Solar Cult, when they changed 
Horus God of the North and South, into Atum-Iu, 
the God of the Double Horizon, East and West, 
and he became the God of the Four Quarters, in 
early Solar Cult in a different form from God 
of the North, South, East, and West of the Stellar. 
Still, it was the same god. 

I do not think any further proof is necessary 
to show the correctness of these statements, unless 
perhaps you would consider a quotation from the 
Ritual of Ancient Egypt necessary. In the XXX 
Ch Ritual occur these words : " Heart mine which 
is that of my Mother ; whole heart mine which 
was that of my coming on Earth. Let there be 
no estoppel against me through evidence, let no 
hindrance be made to me by the divine circle : 
fall through not against me in presence of him who 
is in the Balance. Let not those Ministers who 
deal with a man according to the course of his 



life give a bad odour to my name. And lo ! 
though he be buried in the deep, deep grave, and 
bowled down to the region of annihilation, he is 
glorified, then— lo, how great art Thou — The 
Triumphant One." 

This shows and proves it was the Stellar Cult. 
" The Mother " it was, and not " The Father." 
The Father had not yet come into being — not until 
the Solar Cult. The Glorious Ones, or " the 
Divine Circle," were those attributes of Horus 
represented symbolically by the Stars of Ursa 
Minor. This text is very old, and there is one 
copy on a Scroll in the British Museum. 

If we merely consider the tokens of recognition, 
the passwords, secret words, and the decorations 
of the Lodges, according to the degrees into which 
Modern Masonry is divided, we find that many 
of them are taken from the V. of the S.L., and are 
symbolical of events, real or imaginary, some of 
which are said to have taken place in those com- 
paratively modern times which followed the decline 
and destruction of the old Egyptian Empire, and 
marked the commencement of the Christian Era, 
others as having occurred before the Christian Cult 
commenced, others at the building of King Solo- 
mon's Temple. All of which, some think, and 
have stated, have nothing to do with the religious 
Mysteries of the Egyptians that were in existence 
many hundreds of thousands of years before. 


Where do those who positively affirm that all 
these have not been derived from the Egyptians 
suppose they originated? Whence did the above 
obtain them? Recent discoveries have proved 
beyond a doubt that all through Africa, Europe, 
Asia, America, and many of the Pacific Islands, 
during the Stellar period there was but this 
one religious cult practised, taught, and believed 
in by all. Their industries, arts, and sciences were 
common and universally the same. The Signs and 
Symbols that we use were theirs, as witnessed by 
these still found amongst the ruins ; and the centre 
of intellect, and origin, was Egyptian. I affirm 
from personal observations and study, and it is 
open to all students to confirm my observations 
and translations, that these Signs and Symbols 
still existing on the walls of Ancient Temples 
and ruined cities in Africa, Asia, Europe, and 
America, as well as many islands in the Pacific, 
are identical in every form and shape with those 
now used amongst the Brotherhood, and I further 
maintain that these translations of their Rituals, 
which we have now discovered and can read, are 
analogous to our own ; at the same time, 1 must 
say that many innovations have naturally been 
made, because it became necessary to replace those 
secrets that were lost, and also to meet the higher 
state of evolution which mankind has now reached. 

I cannot now enter into the question of how. 



when, and where these Symbols and Rituals first 
came to this country^ but if you follow the progress 
and evolution of the human race, its migrations, 
arts, sciences, and religious cults, in the various 
waves of exodes from Egypt, the rise and fall 
of the different Empires that have taken place, the 
results and effects upon peoples that flourished in 
latitudes down to 50 degrees, by the Glacial Epoch 
recurring every, 25,827 years — the destruction of 
the old Egyptian Empire over five thousand years 
ago, followed by fire, sword, and a dark and 
degenerate age of all that pertained to their old 
civilization — you will begin to understand a little, 
and when you consider how tenacious mankind is 
of the religious doctrines that they have been 
taught, and brought up in, by, their fathers and 
mothers, you will understand that, in spite of all 
the persecution they were subjected to by the 
Roman Priesthood, there would be many in various 
countries who would secretly cling to and carry 
on their old beliefs. 

Herodotus states that all the Zoroastrian, 
Dionysiac, Serapism (or Greek), Mithrasism, 
Samothracian, Pythagorean, and Eleusnian Mys- 
teries were obtained from the Ancient Egyptians, 
and that most of these were initiated into these 
Mysteries by the Pelasgians, who stated that they 
were initiated into these Mysteries by the 
Egyptians. Then the Stellar Cult people travelled 


and settled in most parts of Africa, Asia, Europe, 
America, North and South, and many islands of 
the Pacific, and the Solar followed them into Asia, 
Europe, and some parts of America. The Chinese 
and most of the Japanese are still Stellar Cult 
people, but now much mixed with the Solar. The 
Druids, Incas, and Hindoos were all Solar Cult 
people. The Druids, or Culdees, existed here until 
quite a modern date, and then some of their Priests 
joined the Christian Church. The oldest churches 
in the West of England and other places bear 
witness of how they brought over some of their 
Sacred Signs and Symbols with them, introducing 
the same as Symbols of the new Cult. 

During the dark and degenerate ages of nearly 
five thousand years, records were destroyed ; we 
have no history of the past hundreds of thousands 
of years of this world's existence. Socialism crept 
in after the dissensions amongst the Priests them- 
selves, followed by fire and sword, and the destruc- 
tion of literature, arts, and sciences followed. This 
has always been the history of past great nations. 
History repeats itself. But our Brotherhood has 
inherited a sacred legacy ; after being scattered 
over the face of the earth and water, we have 
come together again, in spite of the persecution of 
the Roman Priesthood, and it now rests with the 
Brotherhood throughout the world to say if we 
shall in the future establish that one human 


Brotherhood as of old, founded on the belief of a 
Divine Creator, and an Eternal and Everlasting 
Spiritual Life hereafter, grasping the opportunity 
to consummate that which must be the dream 
of every Freemason ; or shall we, through dis- 
sension, apathy, and want of universal combination 
with our Brotherhood, further postpone it to future 

The past evolution of the history of the human 
race has been an object-lesson to remind us that, 
without the belief in the Divine Creator, our 
Brotherhood could not remain cemented together. 
That is, and must be, our object above all others, 
and although we find various terminology used 
for Him, under different organizations and in the 
various cults, as these have risen and been replaced 
by others. He is always " The One, and for ever 
the same Divine Master, under whatever Sign and 
Symbol — ^the Great Architect of the Universe." 

Remember that, for Freemasonry to exist, there 
is no way of standing still — it must progress or it 
must fall ; the human intellect is again expand- 
ing after all the dark ages we have passed through, 
a dark and deep pit of ignorance), out of which 
we cannot be extricated except by the Egyptian 
ladder. With the example of a great universal 
past, we have the opportunity of making a great 
universal future Brotherhood, as of old. Grant 
that this may be speedily consummated. 

- XI 


As the Four Cardinal Points are brought into 
prominence in the various Masonic Degrees, and 
as many very erroneous ideas exist as to the origin 
and meaning of what is taught with regard to 
them, their real origin, meaning, interpretation, 
and symbolisms will be of interest here. 

The full explanation necessitates reference to 
some of the decipherments I have already given 
to prove the association of the progressive evolu- 
tions of the human race, with regard to the Four 
Cardinal Points. The Old Mystery Teachers of 
Egypt mapped out, or divided, the Heavens first 
into two divisions. South and North. The 
" Points " being the two Pole Stars, resting on the 
Horizons, as seen in the centre of Africa, " Points 
which never changed with time," represented sym- 
bolically as Set and Horus, Twins of the Great 
Mother, " the Two Primary Gods," symbolized by 
two Poles or Pillars or two Eyes, and sometimes 
by two Circles. These also represented Light and 


Darkness, also the two Seasons of the Old 
Egyptian Year. The old Egyptians first divided 
their year into (i) the Season of Summer Water, 
(2) the Season of Winter Drought. Also these 
were called the two original " Ancient Ones." It 
was at this time the two Cardinal Points— North 
and South=Set and Horus— " first came into 
being." The next phase was Heaven being divided 
into three divisions, or " triangular form," with 
the God Shu added to the two above, placed at 
the Equinox, forming the Primary Trinity. 

These three represented the first three Sons, or 
Elementary Powers, born of the Great Mother, 
and symbolized in Egypt in one form by " The 
Water Cow," the Crocodile, and the Lion : repre- 
senting (i) Light, (2) Darkness, (3) the breathing 
power, or Winds. Also they represented the three 
Seasons, into which the Egyptians had then divided 
their year— i . The water season, represented sym- 
bolically by Horus ; 2, the season of wind, or 
breath of life, and of the Equinoctial gales, by 
Shu ; 3, the season of Dryness and Drought, by 
Set ; called (i) the Water Season, (2) the Green 
Season, and (3) the Dry Season. The Signs and 
Symbols for which were (i) Water, (2) Grow- 
ing Plants, (3) a Barn or Storehouse indicating 
that the harvest was gathered. The names in 
Egyptian for these Seasons are Se, Pir, Semon. 

The three Seasons of four months led to the 


circle of the Ecliptic being measured and divided 
into three parts, i.e. a Triangular division. The 
Egyptian month was divided into three weeks of 
ten days each, which obviously corresponded to 
the Heaven of the Triangle, the tripartite Ecliptic 
and the three Seasons of Egypt. Many other 
forms of the first three elementary spirits or attri- 
butes of the G.A.U. might be mentioned, but they 
do not concern us here. 

In the next progressive evolution the Old 
Mystery Teachers divided Heaven into four 
Quarters, as a Square with four sides, in which 
may be traced " four houses." This division into 
four Quarters was first symbolized by a man and 
then by the crossing of two men, as is proved by 
the s>Tnbols found depicted in the tomb of Nagada 
(see Fig. 59). This was the origin of the 
Swastika, which proves this Sign and Symbol 
to be that of the four Quarters. At the Cardinal 
Points, North, South, East, and West, of which 
the latter two had '* now come into existence," 
were stationed the four Brothers or Children of 
Horus, as the four supporters and protectors of 
the Four Cardinal Points, and the supporters and 
bearers of each Quarter. Therefore we find that 
" Two Cardinal Points, North and South " were 
first formed, or founded, many thousands of years 
before the other two, namely East and West. Now 
at each Cardinal Point one of the four Brothers 


of Horus was assigned a place. These are the 
children of Horus who stand on the Papyrus plant, 
or Lotus, born of water, in the new Kingdom 
that was founded for the Father by Horus the 
Son. Two of these children, Tuamutef and 
Kabhsenuf, are called the two fishes (Ritual, 
ch. 113), and elsewhere the followers of Horus 
are the fishers or fishermen. Horus was teacher 
of the Lesser Mysteries in his first advent, and 
teacher of the Greater Mysteries in his second 
advent. And this is the reason why we find Four 
Cardinal Points in the Stellar Cult, as well as in 
the Solar, although it has been often overlooked 
by Egyptologists. But when Shu " lifted up the 
Heavens " (which I have already explained), the 
Cardinal Points, East and West, were added to 
the attributes of Horus, as God of the East and 
West, as well as North and South, and the four 
Brothers were assigned to these points. These 
were called Brothers in the Stellar Cult and 
Children in the Solar. They were four out of 
the divine circle of twelve which was established 
first in the Stellar Cult, and in Ritual, ch. 30, 
they are referred to "as being on the side Lord' 
of Horus," i.e. with him in his youth, or earthly 

This refers to the resurrection as it was ren- 
dered in the Eschatology. Thus when Horus rose- 
again upon the Mount, he was accompanied by^ 


the Spirits of the Four Corners, or Cardinal 
Points, with whom his fold was founded (Ritual, 
ch. 97). These four being added to the three 
Primary made up the Seven Great Spirits of the 
Stellar Cult, called the " Khuti " or " Glorious 
Ones." These seven were symbolized as 
(i) Sebek-Horus, the Crocodile ; (2) Set, the 
Water Bull ; (3) Shu, the Lion ; (4) Hapi, the 
Ape ; (5) Tuamutef, the Jackal ; (6) Kabhsenuf, 
the Hawk ; (7) Amsta, the Man. Thus we have 
the three Primary in the Triangle and four in 
the Square ^ the Seven Great Spirits of Heaven 
and Earth. The new Heaven was thus estab- 
lished on the Four Quarters that were founded 
upon the solstices and equinoxes, and 

These four (i) Hapi, (2) Tuamutef, (3) 
Kabhsenuf, and (4) Amsta, were stationed at the 
Four Cardinal Points. 

As Egyptian, they are four Great Spirits at the 
four comers of the Mount of Heaven, and in 
Revelation they are the " four angels standing at 
the four comers of the Earth, holding the four 
winds of the Earth (Rev. vii. i). (See later 
representation in Calendar wheel of Duran.) The 
Kamite Four, reproduced in Revelation as the 
four living creatures — the first creature like a 
Lion, the second like a Calf, the third had the 
head of a Man, and the fourth creature like a 
flying Eagle (Rev. iv. 7)— these four, under 


whatever names or forms, are the same, and their 
duties are the same in whatever part of the world 
found. In their primary form they are " the four 
Hving creatures " with the eyes, which as Egyptian 
are Ape-headed, Jackal-headed, Bird-headed, and 
Human -headed . 

In a secondary phase they were given the human 
figure, and both forms of the four are repeated in 
the Revelation of John. According to Revelation, 
" the four living creatures " are full of eyes round 
about and within, and they have no rest day and 
night, as they are moving round for ever with 
the sphere. Being astronomical figures, the eyes 
of these were the Stars. In the Ritual, the four 
are Eyes symbolically, or the stars of the Four 

The vignette to Chapter 148 of Ritual portrays 
them as the four Eyes, or guiding Stars, one to 
each Quarter, North, South, East, and West. They 
are spoken of in the Ritual as the Divine Powers = 
his children or brothers as the four supports of the 
future Kingdom (Ritual, ch. 112) and the Four 
Glorious Ones (Ritual, ch. 92). 

The Egyptians now divided their year into foui 
Seasons, which would roughly correspond to oui 
Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, represented 
in one phase by the Symbolic Brothers— one for 
each Season. 

These four Brothers, or Children, of Horus, pro- 



tectors of the Four Cardinal Points, and supporters 
of the Four Quarters, are very important in helping 
us to trace man and his cults throughout the world. 
I am giving the decipherment of some of the 
Signs and Symbols representing these, found in 
various parts of the world, which have never been 
deciphered before or interpreted by any one, so 
that my readers will find it easier to understand 

P f 

Fig. 82. 

the mysteries of the past, and their connection 
with " the Marchens," and the reasons for the 
importance attached to the Four Cardinal Points 
in Freemasonry. 

The Egyptian Originals were the Elementary 
Powers, or Spirits, in Totemic Sociology, divinized 
in the Stellar Cult, and brought on in various forms 
through the Lunar, Solar, and Christian doctrines. 

Fig. 82 reproduced here, gives the Egyptian 


symbolic representation, and is taken from 
Bunsen's Dictionary. 

They represented " the Signs " for the Four 
Cardinal Points of Heaven in the division of four, 
as a square. Afterwards four Consorts were 
assigned to them, representing half cardinal points, 
or Heaven in the division of eight, in one 

Amongst the Stellar and Solar Cult peoples 
throughout the world we find various names for 
these, but their places and duties were always 
identical, as may be seen and is proved by the 
following. The reason for the different symbolifi- 
cation in representation is because the " fauna " 
as models for Zootypes were different in each 

Amongst the Mexicans these were called — 


1. Tecptl 

2. Tochtli 

3. Acatl 

4. Calli 


Name 0} 

Sign or Symbol Colour 

North Flint Knife or Shell White Cipactli 

South Rabbit or Hare's Yellow Cozcaquanhtli 


East A Reed or Cane Red Michitzli 

growing in Water 

West A House Black Ozomatli 

Amongst the Mayas- 

1. Zac-Bacab = 

2. Kan-Bacab = 

3. Chac-Bacab = 

4. Ek-Bacab ^ 

The White Bacab who stood at the North. 
The Yellow Bacab who stood at the South. 
The Red Bacab who stood at the East. 
The Black Bacab who stood at the West. 



the Zapotecs— 

I. Been 


2. Eyanab also 


3. Ahbal 


4. Lamal 



the Peruvians— 

I. Manco Consort 


2. Cachi 


3. Uchu 


4. Auca 


Amongst the Chaldeans the Four Principal Pro- 
tecting Genii of the Human Race were — 

1. Sed-Alep ir Kirul represented as a Bull with Human Face ; 

2. Lamas a Nirgal represented as a Lion with Human Head ; 

3. Ustur, after the Human likeness ; 

4. Nattiz, with the head of an Eagle ; 

and were said by Ezekiel to be the four Symbolic 
creatures which supported the Throne of Jehovah, 
in his visions by the River Chebar. 

These four are known to the Hindoos as the four 
Maharajahs or Great Kings of the DylamCholans — 

1. India — The King of Heaven in the East. 

2. Konvera — The God of Wealth in the North. 

3. Varouna — The God of Waters in the West. 

4. Yama — The Judge of the Dead in the South. 

Amongst the Chinese they represent the Four 
Quarters or the Four Great Powers or Mythical 


1. Tai-Tsong = East 

2. Sigan-fou = West 

3. Hou-Kowang =: South 

4. Chensi-si = North 


Amongst the Bavili and Bimi— 

1. Ibara 

2. Edi 

3. Oyekun 

4. Oz-be 

As the four supporters of Ifi, the Son of God. 

Amongst the Yoruba- 

1. Ogun 

2. Shango 

3. Edgu 

4. Oshalla 

= North = Red * 

= West = Black P^'^^'^ *^1 

r. i ^. ,, „ ^Four Odus of 

= East = Yellow or Green , ^j^g Yorubas. 

= South = White j 

Other names on the West Coast of Africa are- 

1. Edgu = 

2. Shamgo = 

3. Obatalla = 

4. Ogun = 


Yellow or Green 




The Symbols or Signs of the Four Cardinal 
Points of the world as a Square, or four quarters, 
are found depicted in other forms as follows : — 

Arranged as the Four Chief Odus amongst the 
Yoruba — 

Red N Ogun 



1 1 




- — — ■" *>.^^ 


" * II II 

1 1 

,., . »».a — 

White S Obatalla 
Made from Shells. 

S Obatalla 

Yoruba picture of Uw world 
by barked sticks. 


Pueblo Indian picture of the world in four quar- 
ters or divisions illustrated by barked sticks — 

N Red 

Black W 

E White 

S Yellow 

The Koreans depicted the Sign and Symbol of 
Heaven in a Square, and the Four Cardinal Points 
or divisions of Heaven in four quarters. Barked 
sticks — four sticks of equal length — form the 
square, and four sticks of equal length the centre 
arms. From the centre arm, the one representing 
the East, they removed all the bark, so that it was 
white ; from the one representing the West none 
of the bark was removed. The one representing 
the North had all removed but one piece in the 
centre, and in the South the bark was removed 
from the centre, leaving the bark at the two ends. 





The Korean. 



Amongst the Mopi their names were — 

Gala = East 

Sala = West 

Arba = North 

Nika = South 

Amongst the Mandes — 


Amongst the Hebrews — 

1. Man \ 

2. Lion I The Four Standards of the Children of 

3. Ox f Israel as used amongst R.A.M.'s. 

4. Eagle) 

Amongst the Christians — 

I. St. Matthew 




2, St. Mark 




3. St. Luke 




4. St. John 




Revelation iv. 6 : " And in the midst of the 
Throne and round about the Throne were four 
beasts, full of eyes before and behind. The first 
was like a Lion. The second was like a Calf. The 
third had the face of a Man. The fourth was 
like a flying Eagle." (Plate D.) 

Plate E here reproduced, a facsimile of Plate 
44 Fejervary Codex, portrays the original so-called 
Maltese Cross of the 18"^ and 30°. Although the 


Plate D. — The Four Evangelists, SS. Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John, depicted in Christian Symbolism as 
Man, Lion, Ox, and Eagle. 

Plate E. — Tlie Risen Honis and Jiis Four Brothers. 
(From the Fejervary Codex.) 

To face p. 2^3. 


Brothers of this degree do not know it, here is 
the original, and I now restore it to them. In the 
centre there is a square representing Heaven as 
a Square, with Horus as Amsu, or the risen Horns 
as God of the four quarters, as the central figure. 
Surrounding this figure there are the four supports 
represented by four Trees, one in each " arm," 
and in each one of these arms is one of the four 
Brothers of Horus, with his Consort supporting 
in Sign Language. Between each " arm " there 
is a " loop " ; at the upper part of the " loop " 
is the name or Zootype form, or Symbol, for 
the name of each Brother. The Symbol is placed 
in the centre of the body of a bird (Eagle), proving 
this to be an " attribute " of the God Horus. 

All are looking at the central figure, i.e. Horus 
as Amsu in Spirit, the Risen Christ, as the 
Christians would say. 

In Sign Language we have here typically por- 
trayed the risen Horus and his four Brothers, the 
latter as supporters of the Four Cardinal Points 
representing the attributes of Horus supporting 
the new Heaven founded on his second advent or 

Again, this is depicted by a bird (Eagle— Symbol 
for Horus) on the top of each Tree or Pillar, 
which is supported as here portrayed with the 
Brothers and their Consorts, an original "Stellar" 
form taken alone. 


The. Glyphs which tell you, and assign to each, 
the duties or attributes of these brothers, are shown 
between the " Arms " of the Cross and the " Loops," 
and are identical with the old Egyptian, as stated in 
the Ritual of Egypt. On the Loops there are 12 

dots or small circles f j on each side, represent- 
ing the 12 divisions of the North and the 12 divi- 
sions of the South, or Great Powers or Spirits or 
24 Mysteries (in sub -divisions) of the Stellar Cult, 
and on " the Arms " of the Cross you will per- 
ceive the same i 2 dots, the three parts of the arm 
showing 36 divisions, or sub -divisions, in " the 
Triangle," thus mixing the 36 divisions of Heaven 
of the Solar with the Stellar 24 or double 12. 

I also produce here a copy of Plates 65 and 66 
(Plate F) Vatican Codex B, showing the four 
Brothers of Horus as supporters of the Four Car- 
dinal Points. It is portrayed in a different form, 
" Stellar," from the previous one, and their names 
and attributes are written in Glyphs underneath. 
They are represented here as supporting the Tree 
or Pillar or Pole of Heaven as Stellar. 

Plate G (see Frontispiece), representing the 
Tableau des Bacab restored, shows the raised Tatt 
Cross, i.e. Tattu the Place established for ever, 
within a Square (Heaven), and the four " Bacabs," 
with their Consorts placed at the Four Cardinal 
Points, as supporters, or Guardians of Heaven. 
This plate represents the Solar Cult, although much 



Plate F. 

Tlic Four Brothers of Horns. (From tlic Vatiain Codex.) 

To face p. 244. 


of the Stellar has been brought on and mixed with 
it ; even the names of the Bacabs (Maya) are written 
in the old Toltec Stellar Glyphs above them. The 
two central figures sitting one on each side of the 
Tatt Cross represent Horus in two forms, Earthly 
and Spiritual ; although they have retained here 
one of the Signs and Symbols for his Stellar name, 
as shown on the left and portrayed by the head 
of the Crocodile, where we also see the Glyphs 
which denote that it is Horus, or the " Brow of the 
God lu," the bringer or giver of life by water and 

In another form the Tatt Cross consisted of a 
pedestal with four circular horizontal bars or 
shelves, constituting a kind of Altar-Cross. The 
name signifies " to establish," and is the Symbol 
of Stability as the fourfold foundation of the world, 
or an order of things, that was established upon 
the four quarters. The Tatt -Altar or Pedestal 
is the equivalent of the mount of the four Corners, 
or the Tree with four branches, or the Cross with 
four arms. It is the special type of Ptah, the 
establisher of the four Corners in the Solar 
Mythos ; but it existed as a Lunar Emblem for 
the Moon-God before the Solar and, as we see here, 
before that, in the Stellar as — " I am Tatt, the 
Son of Tatt, conceived in Tatt, and bom in Tatt " 
(Ritual, ch. i). Tatt was set up in Tattu, the 
established, or eternal region, the Station of the 


Seven Great Gods in the Polar Region and first 
in the Stellar Cult. 

This Tatt Pillar here represents the two Pillars 
of Tatt combined into one with the Cross added, 
and the Glyphs around tell you the same as the 
old Egyptian and the present-day Christian 
doctrines, i.e. through the raising of the Cross 
and the resurrection, or second advent, of Horus 
in Spirit form under the name of Amsu, he had 
established for ever Heaven as a Square for all 
his followers. 

Although this plate (G) represents Solar Cult, 
it proves that the Mayas brought on many of their 
old Stellar Cult Signs and Symbols and embodied 
them into the New Cult, which they had just re- 
ceived from Egypt direct. (1 find that the Peru- 
vians (Incas) did the same in South America.) In 
Egypt they had destroyed all they could of the old 
Stellar and substituted the Solar, but in these 
far-off countries the pressure of destruction would 
not be so great, and the recent influx of the Solar 
Cult people would only be too pleased to have 
the Stellar Cult people amalgamate with them at 
the expense of retaining some of the old Signs 
and Symbols, which they probably quite under- 
stood. As did Moses when he lifted up the 
Serpent in the wilderness — to propitiate the 
followers of the Stellar Cult. 

I also reproduce a copy of Plate 43, Borgian 


Codex, showing these four Brothers or Attributes 
of Horus in still a different form (Fig. 83). The 

twelve (0) represent the Twelve Stellar Powers. 

The Four Brothers of Horus. 
Fig. 83. — Copy of Plate 43, Borgian Codex. 

Here again we see the Solar Symbol in the centre 
of the plate, proving how the Solar people brought 
on the old Stellar and made use of these Signs and 
Symbols. This picture represents and portrays 


most graphically one of the Egyptian stories of the 
Creation, the decipherment of which it is not 
necessary to give here. 

Fig. 84. — Calendar Wheel from Duran. 

Again, in this so-called Calendar wheel from 
Duran (Fig. 84), which, in fact, is a Swastika Cross 
representing the four quarters, or divisions of 
Heaven, we have the names of the four Brothers, 


or Children of Horus, in " Zootype form,'' one on 
each arm with the Symbol of the Solar Mythos in 
the centre, which shows a later innovation from 
the original. The four Winds as spoken of in 

Fig. 85. — Mexican Calendar. 

Revelation are here symbolized — one at each 

The Solar Cult symbol in its centre proves 
that this was brought on from the Stellar and 

■\ ■'». 


appropriated by the Solar Cult people here in 
Central America. 

I reproduce (Fig. 85) from the so-called Mexican 
Calendar the same kind of Swastika Cross repre- 
senting the four quarters, or divisions of Heaven, 
and the names of the four Brothers, or Children 

Fig. 86. 

of Horus, as supporters written on the arms of 
the Cross, in Mexican. 

These two Swastika Crosses are very important 
for this reason — on one we find the names written 
in Mexican, and on the other the same names 
in " Zootype " form, which gives the key to the 
Signs and Symbols, and enables us to read the 
other pictures correctly. 

Plate H. 
Signs and Symbols of Horns on Engraved Shells from Mounds. 

To face p. 250. 


These are the Signs and Symbols, or Ideographic 
Glyphs (Fig. 86), in the Old Toltec of the names 
of the four Brothers of Horus, the Guardians ot 
Supporters of the Four Cardinal Points which have 
been brought on from the old Stellar Cult and 
used in the Solar by the Mayas, as is proved 
by their portrayal in the above Bacab Tableau. 

iWe also see (Plate H) from the plate of engraved 
Shells from mounds (" Maya and Mexican Manu- 
scripts," p. 62, Fig. 10) these four Brothers repre- 
sented by four Birds'-heads. In the upper one we 
have Paradise or Heaven represented as a Square, 
in the Centre of which there is an Eight-pointed 
Star = Heaven in eight divisions ; also in the centre 
of the Star is the Ideographic Symbol for Horus 
as Amsu, thus showing that he is the chief of 
the Seven Great Powers, or ruler as the eighth. 
The four Brothers or Children of Horus are 
depicted as four Birds'-heads, one supporting each 

In the centre of the lower left we have a circle 
with the dot, equal to the Star at the summit of 
the Cone, a Sign and Symbol of Horus, God of the 
North and South, and in the centre of the lower 
•right we have Heaven again as a Square with 
the four §§ = God of the four Quarters. In 
each case we have also the Birds'-heads as sup- 
porters and protectors of Heaven. 

In the central figure we have Heaven divided 


into four quarters with a Glyph — Ideographic name 
of Horus. This figure, however, is a much later 
representation, and those that formed it must have 
lost much of the original symbolism. 

I think what I have here written and shown is 
sufficient proof of my contention as to the origin, 
interpretation, and importance attached to the Four 
Cardinal Points. The majority of our Brotherhood 
can only read the " Marchen," but if they wish 
for the truth they must go back and find the origin 
of " these Myths," to Old Egypt. Nowhere else 
can they find the explanation. 

The above, I hope, will evince to the Brother- 
hood that although we rnake direct usage in our 
ceremonies of the Four Cardinal Points, and 
although they have hitherto lost the reason for so 
doing, I have now restored it to them. It will 
prove that there is a good authority for doing 
so, one far deeper and more abstruse than most 
of them imagined, brought on from the Old Stellar 
Cult Brothers. 

Whatever incredulity some may feel, or 
scepticism expressed by others, remember we must 
instigate faithful introspection of these hidden 
mysteries if we wish for veracity, honesty, and 
fidelity, i.e. systematic coherence, and these points 
have been my aim. I write for the good and 
informxation of the Brotherhood throughout the 
world, endeavouring to inculcate what Free- 


masonry was and really is. Is there a Freemason 
living who can say why, when taking part in our 
beautiful ceremonies, he has a feeling rising within 
him which no ceremony in any church can arouse 
or still in the same way? At the time he " feels " 
a better man, and drawn to the Brotherhood and 
the Divine Creator differently from anything out- 
side the Lodge. Outside the Lodge his faculties 
could not be elevated to the same standard. Can 
any brother answer why? I doubt it, except he 
knows and understands the " hidden mysteries " 
of the past. Then he will answer, because Free- 
masonry is the truest religion in the world, which 
has been brought on for countless ages by the 
Brotherhood, Pure and Unsullied. Let us seek 
the Truth, Brothers, and when found / can assure 
you that it will not " shake your faith " what- 
ever religious Cult you may follow outside the 
Lodge, but on the contrary it will give you full 
knowledge of the truth, past and present, which 
will be a guide to you for the future, strengthening 
your belief and faith in Freemasonry as the One 
Great Original Religion of the World, and will 
give you the certainty of knowing which part of 
the Eschatology you are following as your reli- 
gious belief outside the Lodge, because all the 
religions of the world have their origin in one 
or other part or parts of the Mysteries, or 
Eschatology of the Ancient Egyptians, and all 


your supposed chronological dates in the V.S.L. 
you will have to alter, not as a revolution but 
from knowledge of evolution eventually determin- 
able by you all. 



It has hitherto been a great question of discussion 
which is the oldest, the Operative or Speculative, 
and whether one was derived from the other or 
not. So far, no one has ever pointed out the origin 
of Operative Masons, and the relation of the one to 
the other. 

The officers of the Operative Lodge " Mount 
Bardon," and the Operative Society, have been 
kind enough to furnish me with much of their 
Ritual, Signs and Symbols, and their interpretation 
of the same, and have suggested that I should give 
some explanation of the Operatives, as so many 
Speculative Brothers are interested in them. 

I am glad to have the opportunity of doing 

this, and to show here some of the differences 

between the Operative and Speculative. I would, 

however, strongly impress upon my readers that 

the question, " does the Operative know more than 

the Speculative," or " the Speculative know more 

than the Operative," is futile, because they are 



each different. There cannot be any comparison 
drawn. The whole of the Operative working is 
the first and second Mysteries only out of the seven 
—later twelve — of the old Stellar Cult people, with 
some innovations from the Solar Cult. The ex- 
planations and uses of the ancient Signs and 
Symbols given to them was for Operative work 

The Speculative is the Ritual and Eschatological 
rendering of these seven, and later twelve, Mys- 
teries in the Stellar, and all the Mysteries in the 
Solar, the latter being a continuation of the former, 
as the result of progressive evolution of thought 
to a higher degree. 

The orientation of the Speculative Temples was 
originally South, then North, and finally East ; 
they corresponded to the changes from the primary 
god Set at the South Pole to Horus at the North 
Pole, and then finally changing from North to 
East in the form of Atum-Iu. With the Operatives 
their primary orientation for Temples must have 
been South first and then changed to the North, 
because their word " El Shaddai " signifies Set, 
God of the South and not the North, although 
they still carry on this name as God of the North 
Pole Star. This is not correct. It should be 
Horus-Khuti, or Horus Behutet, or Horus Anup. 

The Operatives have changed their position from 
North to East in working their ceremonies the 


same as the Speculatives, but this is a Solar inno- 
vation. The Supreme Masters' position should still 
be North with them, as they are Stellar Cult, and 
working or Operative Masons, and had nothing to 
do with the Eschatological side originally, although 
I find some of it in their present Ritual, which must 
have been introduced during the Solar Cult. This 
I will show a little later by the Symbols they use 
i and their present explanation of them. 

I have already mentioned {supra) that the 
I Operative Masons first came into existence at the 
t time when the first old priests built their Temples, 
I that these builders of Temples were the " Ari " 
j of the seventeenth Nome of Upper Egypt, and in 
Egyptian were called " Craftsmen and Com- 
panions," and that they were initiated into the 
first and second Mysteries only. The Sacred Signs 
and Symbols were given them as a guide to know- 
ledge, how to form and build with various angles, 
j circles and other figures, by which the Architect 
could, by crossing and placing in various positions, 
portray for their guidance the buildings for the old 
High Priests. They were initiated into the first 
and second Mysteries so that they should keep 
the secrets of these old buildings. The first 
I Temple was that built at Edfu, and no builders 
ii were ever allowed to attend to these matters but 
! those of the "Ari" in Egypt. They were all 
I naked at first, except a small piece of bark cloth 



in front, in the form of a triangle. These Opera- 
tives included all kinds of workmen required to 
build these Temples — Blacksmiths, Masons, Car- 
penters, etc. Remnants of these still exist at the 
present day in Africa, the Kaverondo Blacksmiths, 
who possess all the old secrets. 

Whenever an exodus of these old Stellar Cult 
people from Egypt took place, they were accom- 
panied by a full complement of these old builders, 
or Operatives, as well as by a priest. These priests 
possessed all the secrets of the mathematical and 
geometrical figures that could be constructed out 
of, or by placing together, their Sacred Signs and 
Symbols in various ways, as well as the Eschato- 
logical explanation of the same. That is the reason 
we find all the old Temples in Africa, Europe, 
Asia, Central and South America were built on 
the same plans during the Stellar Cult. During 
the Solar these were changed, and that probably 
accounts for some of the Solar Symbols now used 
by these old Stellar Cult Masons ; but although 
they have some of the Solar Cult Symbols, they 
still use a Stellar application, or definition, as far 
as they can to them. 

The frieze of the Temple of Xochicales in Mexico 
is a good and typical example of a Stellar Cult 
building with Iconographic carvings, etc., well por- 
trayed. (The reason for these Iconographic 
depictions was that in the Stellar Cult the Great 


God and all his attributes were portrayed in 
Zootype form, whereas in the Solar these were 
depicted in the Human form, which type had not 
come into existence during the time of the Stellar 

The characteristic Solar Cult buildings are well 
portrayed and may still be seen at Mitla, Oaxaca ; 
on these we never find any Iconographic figures — 
but sometimes find human depictions. I mention 
these two as good examples still extant, but 
numerous remains of all Temples of both Cults are 
found in Central and South America and some 
in Africa. 

They bonded the comers in Solar Cult, and 
at the latter part built arches, but these did not 
come into existence until the Fourth Dynasty. 
Hence we never find an arch during the Stellar 
Cult period, but only lintels. 

The old Operative Masons show by the Triangle 
and the Swastika how they discovered the art 
to build arches. The first by the overlapping of 
the sides of the Triangle of Set and Horus, and 
later by converting the square of the Swastika 
into the Circle. (For the origin and meaning of 
the Swastika, see supra.) 

Space does not permit me to give or to explain 

all their signs and symbols, and their uses as 

I Operatives, but I will give a few as examples, 

which I trust will make it quite clear both to the 


Operative and Speculative Mason, that the two 
classes were always two classes — the one workers 
in Material, the other workers in Spiritual form 
In Fig. Z"] we have the triangles of Set and 


Fig. 87.' 

Horus with Consorts added as a symbol of Heaven 
in twelve sub-divisions (see " Signs and Symbols of 
Primordial Man "). Fig. 88 is the same, with the 
angles for the Architect and builders to work on. 

Fig. 88.' 

' These figures are pairs, and their combinations may be seen 
by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 


Fig. 89 is another symbol or division of Heaven 
in twelve divisions, and Fig. 90 is formed out of 
this for the builder. 

Fig. 89.' 

' These figures are pairs, and their combinations may be seen 
by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 

Fig. 90.' 


Fig. 91 is another form of Heaven in twelve sub- 
divisions formed by the triangles of Set and Horus, 
with Consorts added. Fig. 92 shows how the 
builder can vary this angular form into part 
circular, still retaining the bases of the original. 

Fig. 91.' 

' These figures are pairs, and their combinations may be seen 
by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 

Fig. 92.' 


In Fig. 93 we have the triangle of Set and 
Horus (North Horns, South Set), with the two 
at the equinox. East and West, which Shu added 
to that of Horus, forming four divisions of Heaven 
and their four Consorts added, making the Heaven 

Fig. 93.' 

in eight divisions. Depicted in Fig. 94 in another 
form, to give the Architect of the buildings different 
forms and angles by the crossing of the same two 
figures. This is a sign and symbol for Heaven 
in eight divisions, Stellar Cult, symbolizing the 


Am-Khemen, the paradise of the eight Gods — that is, 
of Anubis or Horus, and the seven Glorious ones. 

Fig. 94. 

' These figures are pairs, and their combinations may be seen 
by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 


Another combination is formed by Figs. 95 and 
96, the interpretation being the same. 











J \y 





Fig. 95.' 

' These figures are pairs, and their combinations may be seen 
by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 

Fic. g6.' 


Figures 97 and 98— the two triangles of Horus 
and Set in a different variation — show how to make 
pentagon-shaped figures. Fig. 97 is the Egyptian 
symbol called Sb aau, the abode of Stars, or 
subdivision of the Celestial world-paradise, being 
formed by the triangles of Set and Horus (see 
supra). The landmark here should point to the 
North Star. 

Fig. 97- 

These figures show how the Operatives form a 
perfect Pentagon. It shows Heaven in the form 
and shape of a Pentagon. I am of opinion that 
for a short time at least, this was one form of our 
Lodges or Temples, and I make this statement for 
the reason that in- the East the Lodge and Altar are 


occasionally found as a Pentagon ; but if it were 
so it did not last long, nor was it widely distributed. 

Fig. 9«. 


Fig. 99 shows how the Operatives make the 
circles from these triangles. 

F'iG. 99. 


Fig. loo is the triangle of the Operatives — each 
side representing symbolically one of the three 
masters, or grand originals, or trinity — Horus, Shu, 
and Set. Fig. loi is the same, showing the Archi- 
tect and builder how he can vary the straight lines 
to curves and yet keep the same fit for the builders. 

Fig. ioo.' 

\. ' Figs. IOO and loi are pairs, and their combinations may be 
ji seen by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 

i 19 

Fig. ioi.' 


In Fig. 1 02 we have the triangle of Set modified 
with plumb-line from the Pole Star down to the 
centre of the Earth, which gives the builder a 
square angle, level, and plumb rule all in one (see 
Ritual). You can prove if a Temple underground 
has its roof true to the upright wall. All Masters 
in the Operative 8th degree have it. 

Fig. 102. 

Fig. 103 shows the division of Heaven into 
two squares, or Heaven as one square and Earth 
as another ; also it shows the division into eight 
parts, the one square being superimposed upon the 
other, and Fig. 104 shows Heaven in eight divisions, 
Am-Khemen, the paradise of the Eight Gods, i.e. 


Anup and the seven Glorious ones. The combination 
of the various triangles shows how the two squares 
can be formed, or, vice versa, the triangles out of 
the two squares. There is much that could be 

Fig. 103.' 

written on these figures regarding the ancient 
Esoteric doctrines. 

' These figures are pairs, and their combinations may be seen 
by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 

Fig. 104.' 


Fig. 105 represents Heaven in twelve divisions, 
and Fig. 106 plans from these triangles for the 
builders and masons to work from. 

Fig. 105.' 

' These figures are pairs, and their combinations may be seen 
by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 

Fig. io6. 


Fig. 107. These two symbols or designs are 
very ancient, and were formed by the Master 
Architect from the triangle of Horus, God of the 
North, and the symbol for the Celestial Paradise 
of the North. If our Operative Brothers do not 
understand how to set out these, or if they have 

Fig. 107. 

"Both these designs are handed down to us [Operative Masons'] 
in England. We have sent them to India and China, and the 
Operative Lodges reply that they have them, and that they are on 
some of their oldest Temples." 

lost the secret of setting out these from the triangle 
of Horus, I shall be pleased to show them— at 
present they do not do it, yet it is one of the 
oldest and most secret and sacred symbols. 


Fig. 1 08 represents the seven Pole Stars — the 
seven Glorious ones— circling around the one G — 
T.G.A.O.T.U.— i.e. Heaven in seven divisions (see 
"Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man "). Fig. 
1 09 represents various angles, circles, and figures 
which can be made out of this for the builder. 

Fig. 108.' 

' Figs. 108 and 109 are pairs, and their combinations may be 
seen by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 

F"iG. 109. 


Fig. I I o represents the same six Pole Stars 
with the one Central, or Heaven in seven divisions, 
—the seven circles of Ursa Minor — in different 
form for the builder to work on. 

Via. no. 

" Our A rch apprentice takes an OB. on this Sacred Seven." 

" This gives the track for the feet when going round in the Arch 


Fig. III. Here iii is the Ru (Egyptian An, see 
supra) . 

Fig. hi. 

" The root or key to our Operative Arch Masonry is the half-circle, 
the circle and the sign as fig. iii. This figure iii is the unit that we 
are to use to draw the Seven. Give me the length of the unit simply 
by two pinholes, and I will draw the figure without any pencil 
or rule, simply a pair of compasses. Fig. iii in the Operative 
system refers to Life." (See Speculative explanation supra.) 

Fig. 112 is the Northern division of Heaven 
into twelve parts, (see " Signs and Symbols "). 
Heaven was divided into twelve divisions of the 
North, and twelve divisions of the South during 
Stellar Cult, and we have here the representation 
of the same. These are the twelve divisions of 
Heaven, the twelve Camps of the Stellar Cult, the 
twelve Tribes of the Children of Israel, and various 
other twelves in many forms. Fig. 1 13 gives various 
angles and points for the information of the builder. 

All the foregoing are of pure old Stellar Cult 
origin, and I will now give two of their Solar 


Fig. 112.' 

'* The operative Arch Masons require this to be all set out without 
being allowed to go to the centre. It is Holy ground within the 
twelve circles." 

' Figs. 112 and 113 are pairs, and their combinations may be 
seen by tracing one on paper and placing it over the other. 


Fig. 113. 

Fig. 114. This was part of the Solar Cult, 
and did not come into being until the Fourth 

Fig. 114. 

" This is how the Arch Masons teach their Candidates curved 
work. With left breast as centre strike out . With right as 

centre strike out . With neck as centre put in the invert." 


Fig. 115. This symbol is the Swastika, and 
an innovation brought on during the Solar 
Cult (see supra) . The Stellar people formed a 
square originally with the two triangles of Set 
and Horus, and the formation of the heavens in 
the form of a square, or four quarters, was a 
later form and a Solar symbol. The Operatives 
have therefore formed out of this various figures, 


Fig. 115. 
" This used by all right divisions." 

both squares and circles, or a circle on four divi- 
sions, and learnt to build the true arch from this 
during the Fourth Dynasty. 

But although the Operative Masons use now 
the Swastika in the form of the four divisions 
of Heaven, with the Four Brothers, or Children 
of Horus, as the representation of the Four 
Quarters and the Four Supports thereof, yet to 


prove my contention that they were originally 
Stellar Cult people, descendants of the old Ari of 
the Seventeenth Nome of Upper Egypt, I will 
give here another proof, namely, that they use the 
" original Stellar Cult Swastika " in their cere- 
monies, which was in the form of Fig. i i6 — 

Fig. ii6. 

'\This isrused by the York division only. 

and which we " Speculative " Masons do not use, 
having lost the Eschatological signification, as well 
as the old Sign and Symbol, but which I now 
restore to them. 

The interpretation and meaning of this Symbol 
is as follows : — 

I. There is the Triangle in the centre, repre- 
senting Heaven in three divisions (G). 


2. There are three arms which represent the 
three supports of Heaven, these representing the 
" Three Grand Originals " in the R.A.C. All 
R.A.M. will recognize this when the " Three 
meet to form the Triangle." Their position and 
action is one of " support/' like on the " five points 
of Fellowship," " they meet and agree to support " 
the Triangle, a representative symbol of Heaven 
and T.G.G. of T.U., in the Stellar Cult. 

3. The Primary Trinity is here represented as 
Horus, Set, and Shu. 

4. These also represent the three primary Ele- 
mental Powers divinized— also the Three Seasons 
of the year, as ancient Egyptian— in the Stellar 
Cult (see supra) . 

5. This Sign and Symbol, although as old as 
the Stellar Cult, and Sacred Symbol still used 
by the " Operative Masons " of the York division 
only (for other reasons than here stated), has been 
brought on, and is at the present time used as a 
Totem Sign for the County of Kent and the Isle 
of Man. It is also found in many parts of the 
world under various phases. This " Swastika " 
of the Stellar Cult is used by the York division 
of the Operative Masons only, thus proving that 
their old Brother Operative Masons have pre- 
served the true original, and have not contaminated 
their Ritual with the Solar innovation, which is not 
only very curious and instructive, but proves my 



contention as regards the " Solar Swastika " being 
a Sign or Symbol not originally connected or 

belonging to them. 

Fig. 117. As regards their statement "The 
present form of Speculative square is no good at J 
all, as you will see " — this is not relevant to the 

I* k r r ..' 

H ^ 

7x7^ ^<? 

kJ Ji ^L 

^y 6 - a^ 

Fig. 117. 

" The present form of Speculative Square is no good at alt, as youl 
will see." (Footnote communicated from Operatives.) 

subject, as I have stated (supra). The one was for| 
the builder, the other for Eschatology ; there- 
fore each one is as good as the other for its pur- 
pose, as I would wish to point out to the Operativesi 
— that in whatever form you find this Symbol, and] 
there are many, the interpretation and meaning I 
of the Ideograph is always the same, and could 


not be varied to the Speculative Mason (see inter- 
pretation supra), whilst to the Operative the 
various forms that this Symbol could be portrayed 
in, meant much ; it gave him different angles, 
squared the circle, or divided it into four divisions, 
etc., so that comparisons between the Operative 
and Speculative decipherment are futile. This was 
a Solar symbol, and it is not found amongst the 
old Stellar Cult remnants of the present time. 

The Three Master Squares in the Operative 
D dl O were formed on or out of the Triangle 
in the centre of the above Swastika 
embodied in the 47th Problem of 
the First Book of Euclid (Fig. 
118), and this Jewel is worn by 
M.M. in Speculative who are 
ignorant of its real origin and 
meaning, which is that it is the 
Triangle of Horus, the Three ^'^'''- ''^• 

Squares representing the Three Grand Originals 
in one form, or the Primary Trinity. 

Fig. 119. The Operative Arch Freemason wears 
the Swastika as a Jewel with a Pole Star in its 
centre. This proves how they have mixed up 
this Solar symbol with their old Stellar Cult (ex- 
planation has been fully given supra). That the 
Operatives have a varying number of arms to this 
symbol further proves the innovation. This 
symbol has four arms only in the Solar Cult. 


The division into others has been caused by the 
Operatives placing one to seven, as the Power of 
the Pole, one to seven of the Glorious Ones, etc. 
These seven were represented in various forms — 
one was Horus, God of the North and afterwards 
God of the North and South ; two were Hu and Sa, 
attributes representing Spirit and Blood ; four were 
the four Brothers or Children of Horus, etc. (see 
" Signs and Symbols "), all powers or attributes of 
the one G.A.O.T.U., sometimes represented by 

Fig. 119. 

"The Arch Freemasons' Swastika is worn as a Jewel, and it is 
going with the Sun, the Pole Star being in the centre. Of course 
this is found on the top of the Arch Centre Altar. If the Arms are 
turned in the other direction it means death. Hell, and all evil. 
This drawitig shows 4 Arms, but the Arch Masons have the same 
thing with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 Arms — corresponding to the degree." 

" Cords," sometimes " Chains," and other forms, 
but all one and the same. But these had nothing 
to do with the Swastika, which was a Symbol of 
the four quarters, when Horus had changed from 
God of the Pole Star North in the Stellar Cult, to 
Atum-Iu in the early Solar. 


These are the sLx circles of the Pole Star with 
G in centre (Horus). The Lines (six) represent 
the six powers represented by " ropes " as " men " 
(see Ritual of Ancient Egypt). The top of this 
should be the North, not West, as It is Stellar Cult. 






Fig. 120. 

The Three Symbols or Marks of the three 
Operative Masons are — 

Fig. 121. 


which are formed from the Primary Trinity in the 
Symbolism (ist) of the Three Triangles or the 
Triangle of Set and Horus with Shu added, and 
(2nd) the three Circles as — 

Fig. 122. 

These are very important, and if the reader will 
trace these out on two separate pieces of paper, 
and place one over the other, he will see how the 
triangle is unfolded into one centre triangle, with 
the three others around it. The Primary Trinity — 
the Three in One — the one ruling power. 

I will give one more of the Operative Signs 
and Symbols, which is important because it shows 
the portrayal in the Stellar Cult of what we have 


also in the Solar under different symbols — " The 
Point within a Circle." 

Fig. 123. 

" This mark is found in Egypt, India, and many parts of the 
world. It is true to the 3, 4, 5 Angles, and the Operative teaching 
says it is a point within a circle — the root of the male and female 
system. The male portion is going with the sun, but the female 
is either standing still or going against the sun. 

" There is an unwritten law in the Operative Craft that this sign is 
not to be explained to either Apprentice boys or to any but married 

I reproduce the Operative explanation, which 
is quite sufficient to explain itself without my ex- 
posing any other secrets I ought not to. 


The Operatives say that " Jabal " was their 
founder, but do not know how long ago he lived. 
This, I take it, is the Hebrew for Horus Behutet, 
and they can certainly claim that they have existed 
at least three hundred thousand years, because 
their Signs and Symbols, and the words " El 
Shaddai," prove that they were formed into the 
Brotherhood of " Companions and Craftsmen " at 
that time. Some of their present Ritual has been 
altered from the original, and passwords in Hebrew 
substituted for the original Egyptian, probably 
from the same causes as the Speculative. They 
salute the rising sun with the sevenfold salute 
which was originally Stellar, but brought on 
as an early Solar custom. The seven-time 
salute, however, was taken from the Stellar 
and carried on, but in their Red degree they 
still have the old Stellar custom, i.e. their form 
of an Arch lodge is a circle under the dome 
of heaven. They have the circular altar in the 
centre exactly under the plumb-line which comes 
down from the God of the Pole Star North. There 
are seven steps up to the altar, which they refer 
to the seven spirits or seven sciences. Thus 
they set out on the floor or ground six points ; 
six men are placed on each arm between the steps 
and point, and at the proper time these slowly 
revolve around the altar seven times. The circle 
here is a representation of the Celestial Paradise 


situated at the North. (For explanation of the 
Plumb-line see Ritual of Ancient Egypt.) The 
seven steps represent the seven Glorious Ones, 
or Great Attributes of T.G.A.O.T.U., and the 
circle of men (thirty-six in all) represents the pro- 
cession of the Stars of the Little Bear, the number 
of times going round represents the number of the 
stars. The Circular Temple v^^as in existence 
long before those of the double square ; it was 
in the circular form that Temples were first built 
by the early Stellar Cult people. Those in the 
form of a double square followed after. The 
orientation of these circular ones will always be 
to the South, which would prove that they were 
built at the time of Set or El Shaddai, God of 
the South Pole. Although at the present day 
they teach the " landmarks " and " land lines " on 
the ground, also the centre sun line and the whole 
system of " setting out " a Temple true to the 
sunrise, on the day after which the Temple is 
named they set out their foundations true to the 
sunrise on the day that the Hebrews came out of 
Egypt (supposed), and teach the Master the " five- 
point system " of setting out the Temple. Here 
we see a mixture of Solar and Stellar. " The 
five-point system " is the correct old Stellar. 
" The setting out true to the sunrise " is Solar, 
and came into existence when the orientation 
changed from North to East. This can be proved 


by examining the remains of all these old Temples, 
examples of which I have mentioned. The old ruins 
at Zimbabwe in Africa form a most excellent 
example of the remains of the old Stellar Cult 
builders, proving most conclusively the great 
knowledge of Geometry, Astronomy, and Mathe- 
matics which the Master builders possessed. The 
Iconographic figures found there prove, too, how 
far the Speculative had advanced in his evolution 
of " the doctrines of Final things." 

I am much indebted to the Grand Council of 
the Operatives for forwarding me their diagram 
of the " Five Great Circles," showing the forma- 
tion of a " curved-sided pentagon," which we 
Speculative Masons have lost (Figs. 124-128). 

I reproduce here the diagrams. For the in- 
formation of my Brothers I give the Egyptian 
explanation, and not the Operative interpretation. 
The curved pentagon here on the centre has the 
same explanation and meaning as the one made 
by the two triangles, as represented in the centre 
of the five-pointed star (straight-sided) — the sub- 
division of Heaven or Celestial World " Sb aau " 
(see p. 270). 

The Five Great Circles represent the Five Great 
Spirits, or Attributes, or Guardians, of the same. 
In the Mexican we often see these represented 
by five Houses or five glyphs ; this is the origin 
of our five points of fellowship, as we demonstrate 


that part of our ceremonies, given only in each 
case to M.M. or higher degrees, both in O. and 
S. (F to F, K to K, H to H, B to B, H. O. B.), 
thus faithfully promising to guard the secrets 

Fig. 124. 

and to support our Brothers in the discharge of 
their duties. 

These Five Great Circles represented a later 
phase in the evolution of Signs and Symbols than 
the five-pointed star, but both originated in the 


Stellar Cult ; both the points and the circles repre- 
sent, or are symbolical of, the Five Great Spirits 

Fig. 125. 

Fig. 126. 

or Attributes, who guard the secret of Paradise, or 
Heaven, and are supporters of each other, and in 


the Operative sense, " Built on," or formed Heaven 
in the form of a pentagon, first with straight Unes, 
secondly with curved sides — as the subdivision of 
the Celestial World, given to the Operatives by 
the Old Priests to show them the correct Mathe- 

FiG. 127. 

matical way to form the buildings, etc., in these 
forms, for their guidance and use. 

The Sacred Sign " Ru " (Egyptian) which the 
Speculative Mason has lost, is still " formed " and 
used by the Operatives. It is formed by the two 


circles representing God of the North and God 
of the South (see Fig. iii), and was first 
formed when Horus became primary god. It 
represents the Saviour of the World who came 
by water, as the water of the inundation of the 

Fig. 128. 

Nile, etc. (see supra). The Operatives use it in 
connection with the Five Great Circles, etc., which 
it is not necessary to explain here except that 
Eschatologically it is sixth great power, 5 + i • 
In the Operatives' form of death of H.A. they 


take two planks 8 ft. long, 9 in. wide, fasten them 
to the 60 by 20, or 3 to i Temple proportion. 
They lay the body thereon, and tie hands and 
feet and body thereto ; five men of equal height 
lift the cross up until it rests on the " five points," 
or heads of the men under the centre and comers. 
To the march of Israel,' they carry him seven times 
round against the sun, all standing at the sign 
of distress — 


Fig. 129. 

(but this is reaHy not the ancient sign of distress ; 
the meaning of this is quite another thing) — then 
out of the Lodge, and the body is placed in the 
tomb ordered for them by K.S. This is only 
done once a year, on the true day when H.A. was 
slain (supposed). To raise him on the five points 
is to lift him and to carry him out flat on the 
heads of five men. .We see a difference in the 
Operative and Speculative here. " His body being 
laid crosswise " is an emblem of early Solar Ritual 

' It was originally the March of the Priests of Memphis. 
This is the only piece of music that has ever been found in 
Ancient Egypt. A copy of it came into my hands, and I 
gave it to 111. Bro. Capt. Rogan of the Coldstream Guards, who 
orchestrated it for his band ; it is magnificent music. 


and representation (see Swastika supra). The 
five men and the five points are Stellar, and refer 
to the death of Horus, the first which is associated 
with the five -pointed star (see my notes proving 
the tradition of the death of Osiris was brought on 
from the Stellar Horus). Of course in the Opera- 
tive and Speculative the Hebrew version is re- 
tained, but the original v/as Horus, God of the 
North and South in Stellar Cult, and the Body- 
should be on the Two Poles of North and 
South. I have discussed this in an earher 
chapter (see Fig. i, page 41). I do not 
wish any Brother to believe for one moment that 
because I have pointed out many innovations, 
made both in Operative and Speculative, I wish 
these Rituals to be altered in any way, because I 
do not ; we have used them now for some time, 
and all understand, or should understand, them. 
My writings are for the information of those 
Brothers who wish to know the origins of these 
things, and what they meant then. 

I reproduce here an old plate of the Lodge 
and degrees of the Operative Masons, a Solar form. 
This is symbolic of a part of Amenta to the 
eighth pylon only, in which the first two mysteries 
were communicated to the Initiate — twenty-four 
pylons in all. The first mystery has been divided 
up into four degrees with these Operatives, " all 
of whom work with their hands." The second 


_ c 

- o 

— i. 

O ^ 

■ c 



— TmI- 

j>) CI 














- ►- 







mystery has also been divided up into four degrees, 
" all of whom work with their heads or brains." 
In other words, you have here the working or 
Operative Lodge, based upon the Eschatological, 
with Esoteric rendering in working and build- 
ing. All of the first four degrees here are work- 
ing, and carry out the plans of the Architect, 
Mathematician, Geometrician, and Superintendent 
of the other four degrees. Thus you will under- 
stand my meaning when I ,have stated that these 
Operatives were initiated into the first and second 
Mysteries only. Their Lodge proves this, having 
only the representation of the eight pylons (see 
Ritual of Ancient Egypt). This form of their 
Lodge is Solar, and not the old Stellar form. I 
do not know if they have the old Stellar J^odge 
formation or not, but they will find it amongst 
the Mendozas at the present day. The orientation 
of the oldest Stellar Lodge was first South and 
then North ; when they changed to East they 
had adopted part of the Solar signs and symbols, 
and mixed them with the old Stellar, because it 
must be clearly understood that these old Opera- 
tive Masons were constituted as such, by the Old 
Stellar Priests, and came into existence at the 
time of the early Stellar Cult. There is no trace 
in the Egyptian Ritual, or anywhere else, that 
I have been able to discover, of their being recon- 
structed again in the Solar, or any of the other 


Cults. It is evident, however, that some Solar 
symbols were given them with the secrets of 
" setting them out " for their Architects and 
builders, by the Old Priests of the Solar Cult ; 
but there is no history of any further degrees 
having been conferred on them, and the fact that 
they have mixed up the Esoteric rendering of these 
Solar Symbols with that of the Stellar proves this. 
In the " Arch-Masons Lodge " of the Opera- 
tives they place 1 2 Circles in a round form (see 
Fig. 112) round the plumb-line down from the Pole 
Star ; on each circle they place a man. A circular 
Altar is placed in the centre, true to the plumb- 
line. The candidate is led 7 times round outside 
the circles, then the man at the East moves, which 
makes a door for the candidate to enter ; he is then 
led round 7 times inside the circle, and takes the 
Arch O. B. at the centre Altar. They say that the 
12 men represent the 12 Tribes. The wall of 
living men represents 1 2 columns of Stone ; the 
men are human columns, or representatives of the 
originals. We see here that the Solar definition 
has been applied to a Stellar Representative. The 
12 Circles represent the 12 divisions of Heaven, 
or the 1 2 Great Spirits of the North (there were 
also 12 of the South, see supra). The Altar being 
circular with the plumb-line from the Pole Star, 
proves it to be a Stellar portrayal, and the 7 times 
walking round represent the 7 Pole Stars or the 


Khuti of the Egyptians. " A man at the East 
moves " also proves the Solar representative of a 
Stellar depiction. In the Egyptian it was " a man 
at the North," which is the true representation 
before it "got mixed." The remains of 12 Circles 
of Stone N. (and 12 S.) are found in many coun- 
tries at the present time (see supra). 

.When an Operative Lodge requires a new 
Chaplain, the Rev. Gentleman goes to a Lodge 
or degree of " Jachin " — a Lodge of Priests — and 
the ceremony of initiation he has to undergo is 
unknown to the Operative members. After his 
initiation, two Jachins conduct him to the Lodge 
door of the Operatives — in cap, gown, bands, and 
hood. He is brought in, and kneels while the 
prayer is given. The two Jachins lead him at 
once on to the square pavement, and he walks 
seven times round the central Altar and one of 
the Jachins puts the obligation to him. He is 
then taken to the Throne, and the i st Master invests 
him with the Collar and Jewel, and tells him that 
he knows his duty so much better than the Master, 
and hands him the V. S. L. The Master gives 
him the grip and sign that will enable him to 
enter the Lodge at any time. He is then taken 
and installed in his seat on Mount Sinai in the 
S.E. corner. As Jachin represents God, he is 
saluted by all present in due form. 

You will see by this he is not prepared as an 


Apprentice ; he does not have a bond. The W.'s 
and D.'s and D.C. have nothing to do with the 
ceremony. // is a religious and not a trade cere- 
mony. He does not go round on the border of 
the Carpet, but is taken at once to the " Square 
Pavement " — because it is for the High Priest to 
walk upon. He does not pay any fees to the 
Lodge funds, but he pays a fee to the Priests' or 
Jachins' Lodge. He has a special sign, which no 
other member of the Lodge dares to give. We 
see, therefore, here is critical proof of my con- 
tention on this point. 


To the Superintendent of the Works of 


Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors, Plasterers 
AND Bricklayers. 

I, being the Son of a 

Free Man and years of age, humbly crave to be made an 

Apprentice to the Ancient and Honourable Craft. 

I am prompted by a favourable opinion preconceived of the 
Fraternity and the desire for knowledge to enable me to work 
at the Trade. 

1 further promise and swear that I will conform to all the 
ancient usages and established customs of the Order. 

Witness my hand this day of 191 


Proposed by : 
Seconded by : 
Supported by 



* A doctor's report is always required, and the medical exami- 
nation of the candidate is that as for the Army, and he must be 
passed as " fit" or no application for membership will be granted. 


Note.— You will see that the application for 
membership is to work at the Trade. This, you 
will perceive, is another proof of my contention 
as regards Operatives, and the distinction between 
them and the Speculatives. 

To test a man by the triangle in the blue Lodge 
they have a frame as here sho\vn : — 

Fig. 131. 

But to test a man in the arch or red Lodge the 
frame is curved, and the man goes through it. 

Fig. 132. 
You will find this cut in stone also as a design 
in church windows, etc. 

In the 3rd degree the frames have 3 sides. 

In the 4th degree the frames have 4 sides. 

In the 5th degree the frames have 5 sides. 

In the 6th degree the frames have 6 sides. 

In the 7th degree the frames have 7 sides. 


I trust what I have written will be sufficient 
to convince both Operative and Speculative Masons 
that there can be no question as to " which was 
first " or any other points which might cause any 
divisions. I have purposely not included the 
rituals of either, because these secrets of theirs 
should be kept ; they differ in a way, inasmuch as 
one is Operative and the other is Speculative, and 
it is quite possible during the later Christian times 
they might have mixed a little, but the two are 
■distinctly different as stated. 

I only trust that this very long chapter may 
render the position clearer to each Operative and 
Speculative Brother, so that no future question 
could arise to cause any division or unbrotherly 
feelings. I only write for the information and 
good of all Brothers of whatever clime or creed, in 
the name of T.G.A.O.T.U. 



, Oath of Nimrod. 

Apprentice Degree (is/). 

I, do, in the presence of 

El Shaddai and of this Worshipful Assembly of Free Masons, 
Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors, Plaisterers and Brick- 
layers, promise and declare that I will not at any time hereafter, 
by any act or circumstance whatsoever, directly or indirectly, 
write, print, cut, mark, publish, discover, reveal, or make known, 
any part or parts of the Trade secrets, priviledges, or counsells 
of the Worshipful Fraternity or Fellowship of Free Masonry, 
which I may have known at any time, or at any time hereafter 
shall be made known unto me. 

The penalty for breaking this great oath shall be the loss of 
my life. 

That I shall be branded with the mark of the Traitor and 
slain according to ancient custom by being throtalled, that my 
body shall be buried in the rough sands of the sea a cable's 
length from the shore where the tide regularily ebbs and flows 
twice in the twenty-four hours, so that my soul shall have no rest 
by night or by day — 

{Candidate signs the O.B.) 

Given under my hand and sealed with my lips, this 
day of 1913- 

So help me El Shaddai and the holy contents of this book. 

The First Master Mason — Take good heed to keep it right 
well, for it is perilous and great danger for a man to forswear 
himself upon the Holy Book. 

Note. — .We see here that the obHgation refers 
to trade secrets, and must therefore be of recent 
origin. To prove this one only has to refer to the 


later part of it, where " his body is buried in the 
rough sands of the sea." Now originally that could 
not enter into the obligation (in fact it did not in. 
Egypt), because at Edfu, and in the 1 7th Nome, 
there was no sea, and probably the oldest brothers 
did not know much about the sea ; and it could 
not refer either to the Mediterranean, because that 
has, practically speaking, no ebb and flow of tide ; 
and therefore this is a recent substitute for the 
old original Egyptian — which, I may add, is still 
extant, and which they have lost. 



The Worshipful Society of Free Masons, Rough Masons, 
Wallers, Slaters, Paviors, Plasterers, and Bricklayers. 

To open the Lodge in the First Degree. 

ist Master Mason— Brother Second Master Mason, is it your 
pleasure that we open the Lodge in the First Degree ? 

2nd M.M. — It is. 

ist M.M. — Brother Third Master Mason, is it your pleasure 
that we open the Lodge in the First Degree ? 

3rd M.M.— It is. 

ist M.M. — Brethren, assist us to open the Lodge in the First 

ist M.M.— Brother Inside Guard, what is the first care of every 
Free Mason ? 

Inside Guard— To see that the Lodge is properly guarded. 

ist M.M.— Brother Inside Guard, is the Lodge properly 
guarded ? 

Inside Guard — Worshipful Master Mason, it is. 

ist M.M.— Brother Inside Guard, what is our next care ? 

Inside Guard — To see that none but Free Masons and Inden- 
tured Apprentices are present. 

ist M.M.— To order as Indentured Apprentices. 

ist M.M. — Brother Inside Guard, you will admit the Outside 

ist M.M. — Brother Outside Guard, what is your position ? 

Outside Guard -Outside the door of the Lodge. 

ist M.M. —Your duty ? 



O.G.- -Being armed with a drawn sword, to keep off all 
cowans and intruders to Free Masonry, and to see that the 
candidates are properly prepared. 

ist M.M. — Brother Inside Guard, what is your position ? 

Inside Guard — Within the door of the Lodge. 

ist M.M.— Your duty ? 

I.G. — To admit Free Masons and Apprentices on proof, to 
receive the candidates in ancient form, and to obey com- 

ist M.M. — Brother Junior Warden's Deacon, what is your 
position ? 

J.W.D.— At the right of the Junior Warden. 

ist M.M. —Your duty ? 

J.W.D. — To carry all messages and communications from the 
Junior Warden to the Senior Warden, and to await the return of 
the Senior Warden's Deacon. 

ist M.M. — Brother Senior Warden's Deacon, what is your 
position ? 

S.W.D.— At the right of the Senior Warden. 

ist M.M.— Your duty ? 

S.W.D. — To carry all messages and communications from the 
Senior Warden to the Deputy Master Mason, and to await the 
Master Mason's commands. 

ist M.M. — Brother Master Mason's Deacon, what is your 
position ? 

M.M.D. — At or near the right of the Deputy Master Mason. 

ist M.M. — Your duty ? 

M.M.D. — To carry all commands of the Master Masons from 
the Deputy Master Mason to the Senior Warden, and to see the 
same punctually obeyed. 

ist M.M. — Brother Junior Warden, what is your position ? 

J.W.— In the north. 

ist M.M. — Why are you placed there ? 

J.W. — To see the sun at its meridian, to call the brethren from 
labour to refreshment, and from refreshment to labour at the 
proper hours. 

ist M.M. — Brother Senior Warden, what is your position ? 

S.W.— In the east. 

ist M.M. —Why are you placed there ? 


S.W. — To see tlie setting sun, to pay the Masons their wages 
and to sec that tlie working plans arc placed in the place of 

ist M.M.— Brother Deputy Master Mason, what is your 
position ? 

D.M.M. — At your feet, 

ist M.M. — What is your duty ? 

D.M.M. — To lay out schemes, draw designs, and see the 
Master Masons' work properly executed, also to open, rule, and 
close the Lodge when so commanded by the Worshipful Master 

ist M.M.— Brother Deputy Master Mason, what is the position 
of the Master Masons ? 

D.M.M. — Upon the throne in the west. 

ist M.M. — Why are they placed there ? 

D.M.M.— To see the rising sun, to open the Lodge, and to see 
that the Brethren are employed and instructed in Free Masonry. 

ist M.M.— The Lodge being properly formed, before we 
declare it open, Brother Jachin. 

Jachin— Most Holy and Glorious El Shaddai, Thou Great 
Architect of Heaven and Earth, Who art the giver of all good 
gifts and graces ; and hast promised that where two or three are 
gathered together in Thy Name, Thou wilt be in the midst of 
them ; in Thy Name we assemble and meet together, most 
humbly beseeching Thee to bless us in all our undertakings, to 
give us Thy Holy Spirit, to enlighten our minds with wisdom 
and understanding of this our worshipful and worthy Craft of 
Free Mason, that we may know, and serve Thee aright, that all 
our doings may tend to Thy glory and the salvation of our souls. 
This we humbly beg in Thy Name, O El Shaddai. 

All say — So mote it be. 

All say — " In the Lord is all our trust." 

ist M.M.— In the name of King Solomon we declare the 
Lodge open for work in the First Degree. 

We see here that the oldest Stellar Cult God is still used by the 
Operatives— El Shaddai = Set, who was Primary God of the 
South, although now they have placed him at the north, which 
is quite wrong. 


This opening ritual for the first degree and all other cere- 
monies are known as " Old York Ritual," and it includes the 
whole of the charges, documents, and secrets of the Ancient 
Guild Free Masons, Operative. 

Notes on Opening. 

It will be observed that there are three Master Masons, and 
they can do nothing unless the three agree, representing the 
Primary Trinity of Horus, Set, and Shu. 

The Deputy Master Mason rules when the three masters are 
not present. 

There are three Deacons. 

The chaplain is known as Jachin. 

The Masters and Wardens sit in such a position that they can 
face and see the sun. 

In the temple. King Solomon, it is said, sat in the west and 
faced the east. The Operative Masters still do the same, but 
that was not the original position. This innovation was intro- 
duced probably at the time of the commencement of the Solar 
Cult. The Operatives, as is seen and proven here, have mixed 
their original Stellar with the Solar. 

Once a year, October 2nd, the Operative Free Masons change 
their Third Master Mason. 


The foregoing chapters were written before this 
Great War commenced, and it must now be obvious 
to all Freemasons how futile were the efforts of our 
Deputy Grand Master, and the other Brothers, to 
cement the bond of brotherhood for peace and 
good-will with the Germans, at their various inter- 
national meetings, although the terminology of 
laudation on each side at the time was most 
exaggerated. I drew attention to this in an article 
published in The Freemason, asking the pertinent 
question, ' Had they succeeded in their object in 
preventing the then threatened war? " as I and 
others had done some years ago with the Brethren 
of the United States of America, when the question 
between us was " Shall there be war, or no war? " 
The Brothers decided that there should be no war 
then, or ever, between England and the United 
States of America. 

The question of our overtures of peace and good- 
will to the Germans has now been answered in the 
negative— and the Brethren throughout the world 
will question why ; also what will be the result and 


outcome of this war as regards the future, and how 
it will affect the Brotherhood and the nations now 
taking part in it. Both questions I will answer 
for my Brothers. There cannot be the least doubt 
that both the English and French Brethren were 
anxious for universal peace. The French Brothers 
more especially were anxious to be acknowledged 
as being part of the universal Brotherhood, and to 
be in " Entente Cordiale " with the Grand Lodge 
of England, and we all rejoiced that they, having 
acknowledged the Great Architect of the Universe, 
were admitted into our Grand Lodge as such. 

We know that at the meeting in London of 
the English, French, and German Grand Represen- 
tatives, all professed the same universal sentiments 
of peace and good -will. Although the German 
Brethren were eulogistic in their sentiments for 
peace, and professed a wish for closer ties, their 
after actions proved that in their hearts this was 
not so ; they were false to the true tenets of the 
Brotherhood, to the Great Architect of the Universe, 
and to the doctrines which they so professed to 
admire. That this was so is shown by the follow- 
ing : Numerous German Brethren had invited the 
French Freemasons to take part in the Seventh 
International Masonic Conference, which was 
announced to take place at Frankfort on the i 5th 
and 1 7th August, 1 9 1 4, and the French Brothers 
were preparing to meet the German Brothers on 


grounds of conciliation, and to contribute, to the 
best of their abihty, to the eUmination of any 
misunderstandings that existed— such misunder- 
standings as arm nations against each other. 
Nothing was held in abhorrence by the English and 
French Brothers so much as the prospect of a war, 
which, whatever the result, could not compensate 
for its atrocities. 

On the French side, I do not hesitate to declare 
that they were free from reproach. During the 
past two years the question of a Franco -German 
truce had been discussed in every Lodge in France, 
and in every case reconciliation had been recog- 
nized as desirable. The French Lodges have 
become centres for the propagation of universal 
peace principles, and any recourse to violence has 
been universally condemned as a crime which no 
consideration could excuse. 

For a long time past the three Prussian Grand 
Masters have shared the secrets of high councils, 
and here we have an explanation of their hostile 
attitude to peace, which they assumed when sub- 
mitting to their Annual Diet of German Grand 
Masters the following resolution : — 

It is within the province of Freemasonry to 

intervene in all phases of human life as a 

medium of peace and conciliation. It is 

therefore its duty to bring every civilized 



people to an understanding of, and respect 
for, the peculiarities of other peoples, and to 
prepare a pacific solution of unavoidable 

But the activities of Masonic organizations 
must be limited in these matters to an educa- 
tion of their members in the spirit of Free- 
masonry, so that they may spread the idea 
of peace as widely as possible. Any other 
mode of activity would result in political 
tendencies, to which Masonry, by the terms 
of its fundamental principles, must remain 
foreign. It does not, therefore, belong to 
the domain of Masonry to support directly 
the modern pacific movement {called 
Pacificism). Therefore, this Diet of Grand 
Lodges invites the German Grand Lodges, 
Lodges, and Masonic Associations, to abstain 
from expressing any opinion in favour of 

The Brethren will not be individually for- 
bidden to adhere to " Pacificism," on con- 
dition that they are not, on such occasions, 
to be publicly known as Freemasons. 

This proposition was opposed by the five non- 
Prussian German Grand Lodges. The Prussian 
Grand Masters then thought fit to forbid the 
Lodges under their several jurisdictions any further 


official participation in the International Masonic 
Conference then being held. 

Was there not in this anti-pacific attitude an 
exaggerated fear of touching the domain of 
politics? It appears rather that BerHn knew the 
projects of the Imperial Government. The latter 
had decided to crush France, and was acting in 
consequence. In these conditions, it became very 
poor politics to cultivate amongst Germans any 
pacific sentiments. It was solely on political 
grounds, therefore, that the Prussian Grand 
Masters affected to eschew politics. It remains to 
be asked whether this action is " regular " and 
truly worthy of Freemasonry. Emphatically no I 

If at times French Masons have been mixed more 
than necessary in politics, they have nevertheless, 
as French Masons, always served a noble and dis- 
interested cause. Can the Prussian Masons, who 
have knowingly made themselves accomplices of 
unworthy politics, make the same claim? The least 
that can be asserted is that German Masonry has 
not been on a level with its task. This intellectual 
elite of a nation, proud of its " Kultur," has not 
been any more enlightened than a crowd. It has 
multiplied its platitudes towards an autocratic 
system, which is losing for Germany the benefit 
of a century of laborious efforts and brave 
struggles In the full knowledge of the falsifi- 
cation of the Ems dispatch, the Imperial dynasty 


crumbles with the present untruth. No Govern- 
ment, in fact, has ever lied so impudently as that of 
present-day Germany. For Germany has once 
more raised the banner and has called us all to 
the standard, to engage in fight to the end with 
the loathsome dragon now devastating the world, 
more pestilent than the old one, whose path across 
a fair and smiling land of a brave and courageous 
people, with its poisonous breath and vile hatred, 
is marked by hellish outrages on women, the hap- 
less cry of tortured babes, the heart-sob of the 
aged and the crimson stain of its wounded and 
dying victims, and the destruction of Literature 
and Art impossible to replace. 

I do not say for one moment that all German 
Freemasons were of this one mind in Germany, 
or that there were not a large number of Brothers 
who wished for the establishment of Universal 
Brotherhood ; but that the majority, or those in 
power, as the Governing Body, were not so minded, 
there can be no doubt. If the whole of the German 
Brotherhood had combined together as the 
Americans did, there would have been no such 
awful calamity as is now taking place ; but they 
did not, as we well know, and the destruction of 
the German Empire will be the result. The 
French, on the contrary, having returned to the 
acknowledgment of the Great Architect of the 
Universe, and joined in with the one great nation 


which is working for Universal Brotherhood, will 
rise and be a great nation again, thus adding 
strength to the cause, which will become much 
stronger as time proceeds. After this war there 
will be a great advance in France of Freemasonry, 
and that country will eventually be governed by 
the Brotherhood on the lines of the old Stellar 
Cult Brotherhood, brought up to date without the 
dogmas of any of the present-day sects. 
j But the Great Architect of the Universe, who has 
! formed the Natural Laws as well as the Spiritual 
; Laws, punishes and destroys those nations and 
peoples who do not obey these laws, and although 
poor humanity is ever struggling to attain a higher 
type, and does so, yet if any one nation does not 
follow these divine laws it becomes destroyed and 
ceases to exist as a great nation. That is the 
past history of the downfall of all great nations 
without exception, and it will be so again. 

And what of ourselves. Brothers? We are the 
greatest nation that exists at the present time. 
It is a question if we are as great a Brotherhood 
as existed for at least two hundred thousand years, 
as the Stellar Cult people did, when the whole of 
Africa, part of Asia, Europe, America, and Oceania 
were all of one Brotherhood. I say that the future 
all depends upon yourselves. If after this great 
war you allow Socialism to creep in, then this 
nation will follow others and will become destroyed 


as a great nation, and others will take its place. 
On the other hand, if we do not allow the Great 
Serpent of Evil in the form of Socialism to raise 
its head, we shall remain the greatest nation that 
the world has ever seen, in which the Brotherhood 
will flourish exceedingly. It does not matter what 
creed you profess outside the Lodge as long as it 
does not interfere with your great principles, tenets, 
and belief in the one Great Architect of the 
Universe, in the Lodge, and the practice of them in 
your daily lives. 

You will have learnt, from the foregoing pages, 
that we are all one and the same, with this dif- 
ference, that some of us are in various stages of 
evolution as regards religious doctrines, just as we 
are in the advancement of evolution as members 
of the human race. That is the only difference, 
although many of you will not understand this 
except you study the above. 

Brothers throughout the world, I greet you and 
pray that the one Great Architect of the Universe 
will cement us all in one Great Universal Brother- 
hood again. It rests with the British Brotherhood 
now to see this carried out, and every indi- 
vidual brother has a part and duty to perfortn. 
Therefore, let this charge rest on each one of you, 
because it is the will of the Great Architect of the 
Universe that it should be done. 





The Signs and Symbols of 
Primordial Man 

Being an Explanation of the Evolution of Religious 

Doctrines from the Eschatology of the Ancient 


Second Edition. With numerous Illustrations. Royal 8po, z 5 j. net. 


"The subject of the book is to show that the key of the 
door which discloses the archives is the primordial and ritual 
of ancient Egypt ; that Egypt was the original home of the 
myths and ideas of the various tribes throughout the world, 
and it was there that Totemism, Stellar, Lunar and Solar 
Mythology originated, the first or palaeolithic man being the 
pigmy who was evolved in Central Africa, at the sources of 
the Nile, or Nile Valley."— Times. 

" He contends, and brings forward good grounds for his 
claim, that the Grand Order of Masonry originated with the 
sublime teachings of Plato, which were carried out of Egypt 
by Moses, and the first High Priests of the Druids, who came 
to these islands. ... A weight of evidence that has been 
collected and arranged with the most extraordinary diligence 
and care. There are 168 illustrations, many of them large 
plates in colour, which add much to the attraction and value 
of an absorbingly interesting work." — T. F.^s Weekly. 

" A greater and more important fact (than the Masonic side 
of the work) brought forward by Dr. Churchward is his proof 
of the origin and evolution of man, which is contrary to pre- 
conceived ideas and beliefs. There can be no doubt that Dr. 
Churchward is right in his conclusions. Dr. Churchward is 
the first to state and prove that the pigmy was the original 

Opinions of the Press — continued. 

homo, that he has a monosyllabic language of his own, that 
with him commenced the origin and dawn of religious ideas, 
and that he has developed from the Pithecanthropus Erectus, or 
from a branch of an anthropoid ape. His proof lies in the 
fact of his knowledge of the osteo-anatomy of these little 
people found all over the world." — E. S. in T. P's Weekly. 

" A work such as this is a little world of interest opened 
to the serious student of Freemasonry to explore. Dr. 
Churchward is well equipped for this great undertaking with 
other things than enthusiasm, by a scientific medical training, 
by a long study of Egyptian literature, a thorough knowledge 
of craft Masonry and the high degrees, and by an unbounded 
patience in collecting and arranging the enormous quantity of 
facts that in these 450 pages he has given us. We heartily 
congratulate the author on the accomplishment of so great and 
useful a work, and the publisher on the excellent way it is 
produced. As a work of reference it should be indispensable 
to every Masonic library." — The Co-Mason. 

" The completeness with which the author has carried out 
his vast task is shown by the fact that there is hardly a sign, a 
symbol of importance known to modern Masonry, or in use 
in modern religious ceremonial, which Dr. Churchward has 
not traced through all the main epochs of its history. Seven- 
teen full-page illustrations, and 168 text illustrations, all 
artistically executed, indicate the thoroughness with which 
Dr. Churchward has done the work, and add enormously to 
the value of the book." — Theosophy in Scotland. 

" The book must have cost the author much labour. It is 
excellently and lavishly illustrated, and will doubtless be 
examined, if it is not studied, by many of the ' Brother 
Masons ' of every clime and creed, to whom it is dedicated." — 
Dundee Advertiser. 

Opinions of the Press — continued. 

"A most interesting, erudite, and exhaustive work. The 
occultist, mystic, and student of symbolism, no less than the 
Freemason, or the archaeologist and ethnologist, may revel in 
its pages for days together." — Occult Review. 

*' The large and handsome volume before us attracts at first 
sight. As a piece of book-making it pleases the eye and 
the taste of the bibliophile. Typography is all that can be 
desired, and the colour-plates from the Egyptian originals are 
splendidly worked. The book promises much, and that 
promise is amply fulfilled in information provided. The work 
is essentially one for Freemasons. It is a monument of skill 
and industry in a peculiarly difficult line of research. It is a 
book to read slowly and with care. The author has made 
that reading a pleasure by felicitous use of words and clarity 
of style." — American Mason. 

" Dr. Churchward has given "us in this handsome volume 
the results of immense and prolonged labour. Briefly he has 
searched through the symbolism of nations and tribes, living 
and dead, and has traced through the whole of it a likeness 
which points to a common origin. The book is profoundly 
interesting, especially to Freemasons. It is well printed and 
lavishly illustrated, and should be placed in every library, 
especially in those attached to Lodges." — Theosophist. 

" Dr. Churchward has brought together an enormous 
amount of useful and — to the Mason of all degrees — pro- 
foundly interesting material. The numerous illustrations with 
which the book abounds, and the author's suggestive com- 
ments upon them, cannot fail to impress the Masonic student, 
who will appreciate points which, of necessity, the author has 
had to handle guardedly in a book written for the profane. 
We think that every serious Mason ought to read and, if 
possible, possess the book for his Masonic library." — T. P.'s 
Book Notes. 

The Origin and Evolution 
of Primitive Man 

Illustrated. Crown %vo. <^s. net. 

" This amazing little book." — Antiquary. 
"This extremely valuable volume." — Royal Society of Arts. 
" Stirring, original, and intensely interesting." — Western 
Morning News. 


The Origin and Evolution 
of the Human Race 


Profusely Illustrated. Royal ?>vo. z^s. net. 

The object of this book is to bring before the public such 
further facts and values regarding the Evolution of Man as 
have been discovered subsequent to the publication of the 
" Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man," and also to demon- 
strate that the contention set forth in that publication is, in its 
entirety, correct : namely, that the Pigmy was the primary 
homo, evolved from a Pithecanthropus Erectus, or Anthropoid 
Ape, in Africa over a million years ago. 



The Healing of Nations 


Crown Svo, Cloth^ is. 6d. net. Paper, zs. net. 

This new volume by Mr. Carpenter consists of Essays written on 
various subjects connected with the War. One of the Essays gives 
its name to the volume, and amongst others are papers on " The 
Case Against Germany," " The Case for Germany," and 
" Conscription." 

The War : Its Origins 
and Warnings 

By frank J. ADKINS, M.A. 
St. John's College, Cambridge 

Author of "An English Course for Evening Students," etc. 

Cloth. zs. dd. net. 

.-. This book follows the recommendations of Circular 869 
of the Board of Education on the teaching of Modern History. 

The Times. — " ... is well adapted for its purpose. Mr. Adkins 
writes as an historian and observer of events." 

Saturday Review. — " For purposes of popular instruction it would 
be hard to better some of its chapters." 

The Afrikander RebeUion 

South Africa To-Day 

Crown Svo. is. net. 

Contains some notable facts about German intrigues in South 
Africa and the general feeling of the country. The author has 
lived there for many years. 



The Alcestis of Euripides 

Translated into English Rhyming Verse, with 
Explanatory Notes, 

By gilbert MURRAY, LL.D., D.Litt. 

Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Oxford. 
Crown 8f^, Cloth, zs. net. Paper, \s. net. 


Bacchae Medea 

Hippolytus Iphigenia in Tauris 

Electra Rhesus 

The Trojan Women The Frogs of Aristophanes 
GEdipus Rex of Sophocles 


Carlyon Sahib 

A Play in Three Acts 

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" Carlyon Sahib" was written in 1893, and first produced 
by Mrs. Patrick Campbell at the Princess of Wales', 
Kennington, on June 19, 1899. The book was published 
in 1900. 

Prof. Murray writes as follows about it : "It and ' Andromache ' 
were really companion studies of two views of life, the two that we 
now associate with the names of Nietzsche and Tolstoy respectively, 
although at that time I do not think I had heard of Nietzsche. 
' Andromache ' shows a Tolstoyan heroine living and eventually 
prevailing in a primitive society based upon revenge and force, 
Carlyon a kind of superman hero trying, and eventually failing, to 
find scope in modern civilization." 


Artist and Public 

And Other Essays on Art Subjects 

By KENYON cox 
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There is no one writing of Art to-day with the vitality that fills 
every paragraph of Mr. Cox's work. Its freedom from what has 
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altogether exceptional success that his book on the Classic Spirit 
has had within the last few years. 

The Charm of the Antique 


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The joy of seeking and acquiring the things that count in home- 
making is here described by writers who know and love their task. 
They have travelled here and there and everywhere in their search 
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Old-Fashioned Flowers 


Illustrated in Colour by G. S. ELGOOD 
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The Long White Cloud 


New and Revised Edition 


Director of the London School of Economics 

Demy 8ro. Illustrated. Is. (>d. net. 

"We measure our words when we say that Mr. Reeves has 
produced a hook which is remarkable for its freshness, force, and 
general accuracy." — Spectator. 

" He knows New Zealand not as a student merely but with the 
intimacy of one who has taken, and is taking, a leading part in its 
affairs. In ' The Long White Cloud ' he has given us what is out 
and away the best book on New Zealand."— Da/i^' Chronicle. 

" ' The Long White Cloud ' is by far the best book yet written 
about New Zealand. One of the most notable things is the 
excellence of its literary style." — Daily Mail. 

German Culture: 
Past and Present 


Large Crown 8ro. 4x. 6^/. net. 

Mr. Belfort Bax traces from the historical standpoint the growth 
and development of German manners and " Kultur," and exhibits 
the baneful influence of Prussian militarism on Teutonic civilization 
and humanity. 


Rain Before Seven 


Crotvn 8vo. Second Edition. 6s. 

" Mr. Leadbitter enters the literary arena with an equipment rare 
in a novice. He works with conscientiousness and consistency on 
the Hnes he has chosen, and if he deliberately limits his canvas he 
works well within his powers. And his style, unaffected, clear, and 
thoroughly efficient, is in harmony with his theme." — Spectator. 

" Michael, the shy, wayward, passionate boy, has been drawn 
with all the fresh glow of life. Isobel, too ... is a brilliantly 
clever study. Mr. Leadbitter's work will command our attention 
in the future." — Standard. 

" There are few novels written nowadays with more of the 
qualities that mark the ' worth while ' in fiction. A really remark- 
able first novel." — Observer. 

"Mr. Leadbitter chose a felicitous title for this novel, and his 
work is worthy of it." — Daily Telegraph. 

" If this is Mr. Leadbitter's first book he is entitled to hearty con- 
gratulations. He has an interesting story to tell ; it is excellently 
told. ... A decided success." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

" The fresh spirit of youth is in it, full of high endeavour and 
intent on self-expression." — The Daily Citizen. 

" A very clever study of a personality which seeks its poise in 
artistic things and finds it in the everyday life." — Morning Post. 

" A singularly vivid and honest piece of work." — T.P.'s Weekly. 

" Has an amazing reality about it . . . coming near to in- 
spiration at times, extraordinarily sincere from the first page to. 
the last." — Evening Standard. 

" One of the books of the year." — Globe. 

" Readers of fiction who know fine work when they see it will 
watch his future career with peculiar interest. A book of great 
charm and strength which would reflect credit on most veterans 
now writing." — Siinday Times. 




HS Churchward, Albert 

i^25 The arcana of frfemasonry